Emperor Watch Full Length tamil PutLocker youtube For Free James Cromwell

3.7 / 5
Votes: 980






James Cromwell
Pat Charles
Emperor is a movie starring Keean Johnson, James Cromwell, and Bruce Dern. An escaped slave travels north and has chance encounters with Frederick Douglass and John Brown. Based on the life story of Shields Green
1 nomination. See more awards  » Edit Storyline A story of love and understanding set amidst the tensions and uncertainties of the days immediately following the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II. On the staff of General Douglas MacArthur (Jones), the de facto ruler of Japan as Supreme Commander of the occupying forces, a leading Japanese expert, General Bonner Fellers (Fox) is charged with reaching a decision of historical importance: should Emperor Hirohito be tried and hanged as a war criminal? Interwoven is the story of Fellers' love affair with Aya, a Japanese exchange student he had met years previously in the U. S. Memories of Aya and his quest to find her in the ravaged post-war landscape help Fellers to discover both his wisdom and his humanity and enable him to come to the momentous decision that changed the course of history and the future of two nations. Written by Production Plot Summary | Plot Synopsis Taglines: Japan 1945: General Douglas MacArthur was given a mission to decide the fate of a nation, the guilt of a leader, and the true price of peace. Motion Picture Rating ( MPAA) Rated PG-13 for violent content, brief strong language and smoking (historical) See all certifications  » Details Release Date: 27 July 2013 (Japan) See more  » Box Office Opening Weekend USA: $1, 014, 099, 10 March 2013 Cumulative Worldwide Gross: $14, 858, 240 See more on IMDbPro  » Company Credits Technical Specs See full technical specs  » Did You Know? Trivia The U. troops seen in the film, are from the 11th Airborne Division, and from the 1st Cavalry Division. These divisions were indeed the first U. Army units in Tokyo, and their appearance is entirely correct. See more » Goofs The USAAF C-54 shown in the beginning of the film bears the postwar, United States roundel with the red stripes added to the white streamers. This did not appear on U. aircraft until the creation of the US Air Force, separate from the US Army, in 1947. See more » Quotes Teizaburo Sekiya: [ re-enacting Emperor Hirohito's recital of a tanka poem to the ministers at an Imperial Council Meeting three months before the outbreak of war] "It is our hope that all the world's oceans be joined in peace, so why do the winds and waves now rise up in an angry rage? " See more ».

FG: I´m the Omnissiah´s Voice! And my word is as true. Anthems to the welkin at dusk = 9 for nine is the last number, and in its arrogance. lucifer considers it his favorite. hence why it deserves a 9. To save this word, you'll need to log in. em·​per·​or | ˈem-pər-ər, -prər 1: the sovereign or supreme male monarch of an empire Other Words from emperor emperorship ˈem-​pər-​ər-​ˌship, -​prər-​ noun Did You Know? The words emperor, caesar, czar, and Kaiser all go back to one source: the title of the first Roman emperor, Imperator Caesar Augustus. Augustus was the adopted son of the Roman general and ruler Julius Caesar and he took the name Caesar as part of his official name. Later Roman emperors did the same, and thus caesar came to mean “an emperor of Rome. ” The word caesar was borrowed into German and other Germanic languages as Kaiser, which is how we get the word kaiser for “a ruler in Germany. ” Through the Russian word tsar, which also came from kaiser, we got our word czar, meaning “a ruler in Russia. ” The word emperor can be traced through French to Latin imperator. Imperator was a title given to great Roman generals and meant “commander, ” from the verb imperare “to command. ” Examples of emperor in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web But Ghosn is used to living like an emperor who relished nothing more circling the globe and posing with heads of state. — Fortune, "Carlos Ghosn Is Now a Fugitive In Exile. Here Are His Legal Options, According to Experts, " 10 Jan. 2020 The Second Empire lasted until 1870, when the emperor, conscious of his declining popularity, declared war on Prussia – and lost. Susanna Lee, The Conversation, "We’re living in the bizarre world that Flaubert envisioned, " 10 Jan. 2020 Once a delicacy eaten by Chinese emperors, one of the world's largest freshwater fish just went extinct. Grace Hauck, USA TODAY, "Once a delicacy eaten by Chinese emperors, one of world's largest fish just went extinct, " 10 Jan. 2020 After years of battle, the French took over Mexico City and installed an emperor — Maximilian I of the Austrian House of Hapsburg — in 1864 for what would be a very short empire indeed. Jay R. Brooks, The Mercury News, "Beer trend alert: The resurgence of Mexican lager, " 6 Sep. 2019 As art historian Michael Rainer tells Viennese daily, a 17th-century biography of Dürer details a wall painting ordered by the emperor, but no other records of the commission survive. Brigit Katz, Smithsonian Magazine, "Artwork Discovered in Vienna Cathedral’s Gift Shop May Be the Work of German Renaissance Master Albrecht Dürer, " 13 Jan. 2020 Bonaparte went from being France’s first elected president to its last emperor. Susanna Lee, The Conversation, "We’re living in the bizarre world that Flaubert envisioned, " 10 Jan. 2020 But Shinto’s ties to the imperial family, and some religious rituals performed by the emperor, have generated controversy. Washington Post, "Shinto festival carries on centuries-old tradition in Japan, " 5 Dec. 2019 The 1980s saw the inscrutable foreigner with his secret allegiance to the emperor evolve into the company man with an obsessive allegiance to work. Rumaan Alam, The New Republic, "The Factory Is a Chilling Account of the Contemporary Workplace, " 2 Dec. 2019 These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'emperor. ' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback. See More First Known Use of emperor 13th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1 History and Etymology for emperor Middle English emperour, borrowed from Anglo-French empereor, amperour, going back to Latin imperātōr-, imperātor "person giving orders, commanding officer, title of honor bestowed on a victorious general by his troops, title conferred by the Roman senate on Julius Caesar and Augustus and adopted by later successors, " from imperāre "to demand the production of, levy, give orders, exercise authority, hold political power" (from im- in- entry 2 + parāre "to supply, provide, make ready") + -tōr-, -tor, agent suffix — more at pare Note: See note at pare. Learn More about emperor Cite this Entry “Emperor. ” Dictionary, Merriam-Webster,. Accessed 13 Feb. 2020. More Definitions for emperor em·​per·​or | ˈem-pər-ər Kids Definition of emperor: a man who rules an empire Comments on emperor What made you want to look up emperor? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible).

1. Curse You All Men!   0:01 2. Decrystallizing Reason   4:40 3. An Elegy of Icaros   11:02 4. The Source of Icon E   17:42 5. Sworn   21:23 6. Nonus Aequilibrium   25:57 7. The Warriors of Modern Death   31:45 8. Of Blindness & Subsequent Seers   36:44 9. Outro (Hidden track) 43:33. Snoke: You ever heard...

Emperor watch full length 2. Ihsahn, Samoth? You know brothers, YOU can create fire in your hands by focusing on your hands, using Your breath and focus and the heartbeat. Satan bless you my brothers. I asked Lucifer to transmute my blood to be his child with Mother Lilith. Pray for me that I get confirmation. Im Luciferian. Emperor watch full length hindi. " The Emperor Protects... " — The Lectitio Divinitatus The Emperor of Mankind during the Great Crusade The Emperor of Mankind is the immortal Perpetual who serves as the ruling monarch of the Imperium of Man, and is described by the Imperial Ecclesiarchy and the Imperial Cult as the Father, Guardian and God of humanity. The Chaos Gods and the daemons of the Warp refer to Him as " the Anathema " for He is the greatest embodiment of universal Order in the galaxy today. He has sat immobile, his body slowly crumbling, within the Golden Throne of Terra for over 10, 000 standard years. Although once a living man, His shattered, decaying body can no longer support life, and it is kept intact only by the cybernetic mechanisms of the Golden Throne and a potent mind itself sustained by the daily sacrifice of thousands of lives. The Emperor chose to sacrifice His immortal life at the end of the Horus Heresy in the service and protection of Mankind. To humanity's countless trillions across the galaxy-spanning Imperium, He is nothing less than God. Through his Imperium, Mankind is united and remains one of the most powerful intelligent races in the Milky Way Galaxy as well as its most dominant in terms of both population and territory held. United under one government, Mankind is able to survive the myriad deadly threats it faces from aliens, the Forces of Chaos and the Traitors, Heretics and mutants that lie within the Imperium's boundaries. The Imperium's rule, carried on in the Emperor's name since the end of the Horus Heresy by the High Lords of Terra and a multitude of Imperial organisations, has been long, oppressive and necessarily harsh. It has also resulted in technological and cultural stagnation, and a regression into tyranny, superstition and religious obfuscation and intolerance that would have horrified the Emperor. Though He is no longer responsive to external stimuli, the Emperor still lies at the very heart of the Imperium's continued existence. Although He cannot be directly involved in the day-to-day running of humanity's galactic government, His existence on the Golden Throne is vital to sustaining the Imperium, since His powerful mind's presence in the Immaterium maintains and directs the Astronomican, the psychic beacon that makes possible faster-than-light Warp travel and is vital to Imperial shipping, transportation, commerce and communication. He is said to still guide His race through the psychically-reactive divination tool known as the Emperor's Tarot, which select psykers can consult to gain a glimpse of the future and the Emperor's will. He is also said to constantly battle the Chaos Gods in the Warp and prevent their further intrusion upon the material universe. His mind must remain vigilant at all times throughout the entire Imperium to safeguard the human race and to offer His protection to the faithful. Above all else, it is Mankind's collective belief in the Emperor's divinity that serves as its greatest protection from Chaos and the other hideous dangers that plague the galaxy. As the Imperial Creed has taught for over 10, 000 standard years, the Emperor protects... History Origins Note: This section discusses material that was once considered canon but whose canonicity may now be questionable. The Emperor and his most trusted advisor, Malcador the Sigillite The Emperor is the collective reincarnation of all the shamans of Neolithic humanity's various peoples, the first human psykers. The foul Warp entities that would become the four Great Powers of Chaos had not yet fully formed when the Emperor was born on Earth during prehistoric times, somewhere in ancient central Anatolia (modern Turkey) in the 8 th Millennium B. C. But even before the birth of the Emperor, as humanity grew and progressed, the Warp began to become increasingly disturbed by the dark undercurrents of humanity's collective psyche, and the shamans began to lose their former ability to reincarnate into new bodies. Instead, upon dying, their souls were consumed by the entities and daemons of the Warp. Eventually the shamans of humanity, unable to reincarnate, would become extinct, and without the shamans and their psychic abilities to guide the race, humanity would inevitably fall prey to the corruptions of Chaos, just as eventually happened to the Eldar. In these ancient days, all the shamans of Earth gathered in a grand conclave to decide what must be done to stave off the day when they had all been consumed by the Warp. In the end, the shamans decided to pool their collective psychic energies by reincarnating as a single soul in a single human body to create an individual they called "the New Man. " The thousands of shamans, as one, took poison, and as one, they died, their souls flowing into the Immaterium in a rush of psychic power that overwhelmed those daemons who sought to feast upon it with a cleansing, purifying fire, a flame imperishable that became one soul out of many. A standard year later the child who would become the Emperor was born in a Neolithic settlement of Anatolian herders and farmers of a normal mother and father, with normal brothers and sisters. His psychic power was so great that its energies altered His genome and physiology in the womb and rendered Him immortal so He would no longer need to reincarnate and could not be assaulted by the daemonic creatures of the Immaterium upon His death. As He grew older, His potent psychic powers began to manifest. For thirty-eight thousand Terran years, He wandered over the Earth and throughout human history. He travelled among the different peoples of Mankind. While He had first been only an observer of Mankind's triumphs and follies, He soon began to help where He could, using His ancient wisdom to spread efficient government, crop management, animal husbandry, technology and peace. He used His influence carefully, at first adopting only the guise of a normal man, and without revealing His true nature. As the millennia passed, the man who would become the Emperor watched the human race develop. He travelled the entire globe, watching and helping, sometimes adopting the persona of a great leader or advisor. In times of trouble He became a crusader, a religious leader or even a messiah, at other times He remained a back-stage contributor to events, an advisor to kings, a court magician, a pioneering scientist. Many of the guises He adopted were humble, others became monumental figures of world history or religion. At times of crisis He would be there, steering the human race along a narrow path to survival that only He could see. As the human race prospered the Warp became increasingly disturbed. The man who would become the Emperor was aware of how the extreme sides of the human character were feeding the nascent Chaos Powers. Despite His best efforts to promote peace and harmony across Old Earth, the instinctive values of martial honour, ambition, defiance, and self-satisfaction could never be eradicated from the human character. Some of the New Man's plans proved less than successful; seeds of wisdom often failed to flourish or grew into uncontrollable monstrosities leading to eras of persecution and war. The Chaos Powers sensed the presence of the New Man, the "Anathema" as they would name him, and His efforts to curb their own power and growth. Even before they became fully conscious in the Immaterium the Ruinous Powers recognised the man who would become the Emperor as their greatest enemy. Khorne was the first of the four major Chaos Gods to wake fully, and an era of wars and conflict soon raged across the globe to herald his birth. Tzeentch was the next, and nations and politics soon grew to maturity with all of their implicit intrigues and double-dealings. Nurgle was the third to awake and plagues swept across Old Earth's continents claiming many souls for the Lord of Decay. By the end of the European Middle Ages on Terra, all three of these Chaos Gods had awoken to full consciousness. The fourth, Slaanesh, still slumbered, to be awakened by the follies of a different species, the Aeldari. But as the New Man's psychic powers further developed, He became ever more aware of the terrible dangers that awaited Mankind in the broader universe and He resolved to do all in His power to defend and guide humanity towards a future as the predominant species in the galaxy. As more and more humans were born with the mutant psyker genes that granted them the ability to wield the potent power of the Immaterium in the last centuries of the Dark Age of Technology, and humanity suffered from the deadly effects of uncontrolled psykers that heralded the onset of the Age of Strife, the Emperor realised that He would have to take a more direct and open role in human affairs than ever before. Following the birth of Slaanesh after the Fall of the Eldar in the 30th Millennium, and the end of the Warp Storms that had prevented interstellar communications and travel from the Sol System, the Emperor determined that the time had come to directly steer the history of Mankind once more, or see the human race ultimately go extinct. However, in the current Warhammer 40, 000 background story, the Emperor's origin and history prior to unifying Terra is left largely mysterious and undetailed, though His immortality and extraordinary psychic abilities remain intact. The first mention of the Emperor in Imperial records is when He unified Terra at the end of the Age of Strife in the 30th Millennium. Horus mentions that the Emperor lived " in Anatolia, in his own childhood " when talking of his first meeting with the Emperor. It is known that He had been immortal and ancient even before His ascension to the Golden Throne over 10, 000 Terran years ago. The Emperor is the "New Man", the first and greatest of the new race of human psykers. He is also the collective reincarnation of the extinct shamans, sorcerers and wise-men who had guided primitive humanity during prehistoric times. As the Emperor grew older His powers began to manifest themselves and become more potent and he gradually remembered his thousands of past lives, adding all of their knowledge and experience to his own. One account of the Emperor's origin goes so far as to say that He had mortal brothers and sisters and claims that He was born in the 8th Millennium B. in a primitive Neolithic village along the banks of the Sakarya River in Anatolia. While he was still an adolescent, the Emperor's father was murdered by his uncle. While preparing his father's body for a primitive funeral ritual, he received a clairvoyant vision of his murder. Later, the boy who would become the Emperor calmly approached His uncle and stopped his heart with a slight use of His telekinetic psychic abilities, displaying neither sorrow nor malice for the deed. According to the Emperor Himself, this was the moment He realised that humanity needed law, order, and the guidance of a ruler to reach its full potential. At some time after, He left His village for the "first city of humanity, " likely one of the Sumerian city-states of ancient Mesopotamia. For thousands of standard years before becoming the Emperor, He guided and watched humanity develop over the course of its history, assuming the guise of a large number of historical personages. He was aware that the darker extremes of human nature were feeding the growth of the Chaos Gods in the Warp, and so He sought to promote peace and harmony on Earth and thereby curb the growth of the Ruinous Powers' strength. Whatever his true origins, the man who would become the Emperor was the most powerful psyker ever born among humans. Before the Emperor began His rise to power, he was also an anonymous Perpetual, a member of a mutant branch of Mankind gifted with effective immortality due to extremely rapid and efficient cellular regeneration. Whether this ability of the Perpetuals came about naturally or was artificially induced is unknown, but the Emperor was present during the time of Humanity's prior star-spanning civilisation in the period now named the Dark Age of Technology. He was known to associate with other Perpetuals like himself in that era. Among these was a woman named Alivia Sureka. Together, she, several other Perpetuals and the man who would one day become the Emperor travelled to the Knight World of Molech aboard a one-way voidcraft. There, they discovered a Warp Gate into the Realm of Chaos which the future Emperor entered. He forged an unknown bargain with the Chaos Gods and was imbued with new powers and the knowledge required to ultimately create the Primarchs. The Emperor left Sureka behind to look after the Molech Gate until such time as the world could be safely protected by the coming of the future Imperium of Man. Despite His early dealings with them, the Chaos Gods themselves later recognised the Emperor as their greatest enemy among all the intelligent beings of the galaxy. Only at the end of the Age of Strife did the Emperor emerge from obscurity to take a more direct hand in the future of humanity, conquering the warring factions of Mankind's homeworld and establishing His direct rule over the Earth. The Emperor accepted the deaths of the many innocents that resulted from His conquest with great remorse in order to achieve the greater good of unifying humanity and protecting it from the manifest predations of the Warp. With the assistance of the Adeptus Mechanicus on Mars, who joined with the Emperor and the people of Terra in the Treaty of Mars that formally founded the Imperium of Man in the late 30th Millennium, the Emperor created the first Space Marines and fleets of interstellar starships that would carry His armies across galactic space. The objective was a Great Crusade that would unify all of the planets colonized by Man during the Dark Age of Technology prior to the Age of Strife into one Imperium of Man, and also subdue, destroy, or force into exile all intelligent alien races from the Milky Way Galaxy, what was to become the Imperial Domain, the manifest destiny of Mankind. The Emperor also created the superhuman Primarchs from whom the Space Marines' gene-seed was later developed to serve as His primary military commanders for the Great Crusade. The Chaos Gods, however, sought to thwart the Emperor's grand plan. The Primarchs were sucked into the Warp even as they gestated in the gene-laboratories deep beneath the Imperial Palace, and were scattered across the inhabited worlds of the galaxy. During the Great Crusade all but two of the twenty Primarchs were found and united with the Space Marine Legions that had been created after their disappearances from the genetic material that they had left behind. As the Emperor traveled across the stars, some humans wanted to worship Him as a god, however He forbade this, proclaiming, " I am not a god; rather than enslaving humanity I want to free it from ignorance and superstition. " However, Lorgar, the Primarch of the Word Bearers Legion, desperate to find some outlet for his belief that Man must have a God to worship to be truly whole, gave in to the constant whispers of the Chaos Gods and, after corrupting his Legion to their service, sent his First Chaplain Erebus to poison the minds of the other Primarchs and their Legions. Just as the Imperium had reached its apex in the early 31st Millennium, the Emperor's most trusted son, the Primarch Horus of the Luna Wolves Legion (later renamed the Sons of Horus), fell to Chaos as a result of his own pride and ambition and betrayed the Emperor, and along with fully half the Space Marine Legions, initiated a massive civil war for control of the galaxy. This rebellion is known to history as the Horus Heresy. Though the Emperor ultimately defeated Horus during the Traitor Legions ' assault on Terra, He was all but slain in the battle after suffering a crippling loss of limbs and mortal systemic damage; only the life-supporting Golden Throne has sustained His living corpse in a kind of stasis, neither dead nor truly alive. Trapped within His prison of flesh, only the Emperor's mind is allowed to wander free within the Immaterium, still seeking to protect and guide humanity to an increasingly distant better future. Rise of the Emperor and the Great Crusade The Emperor of Mankind before his internment within the Golden Throne The Emperor wielding the Emperor's Sword during a battle of the Great Crusade The man who would later become known as the Emperor of Mankind first appears in Imperial records as just one of the many warlords struggling for control of Terra during the later part of the Age of Strife in the 30th Millennium. The Emperor undertook a series of military campaigns against all the other warlords on the planet that would collectively later become known as the Unification Wars. During these conflicts the Emperor employed several military formations -- such as the genetically-altered warriors of the unit designated Geno 5-2 Chiliad who would go on to serve in the Imperial Army -- that consisted of using genetically-enhanced warriors to maximise His tactical prowess. The most powerful of these troops were the proto-Astartes known as the Thunder Warriors. These warriors played a significant role in the Emperor's eventual victory over all the other warlords of Terra and led Him to believe that His future plans to reunite Mankind would require the creation of an even more potent core of genetically-engineered military commanders and warriors. Following the Battle of Mount Ararat in the Kingdom of Urartu, which was the last battle of the Unification Wars, the Unity of Terra was at last achieved after decades of blood, loss and fire. With this victory, the planet and population of Terra were at last unified under the single rule of the Emperor. But to make His dream of reuniting all of Mankind within a single galaxy-spanning empire possible, the Emperor knew that He would have to make some difficult, even immoral decisions. Their purpose having been achieved, the Emperor ordered all of the remaining Thunder Warriors to be liquidated, as they were a dangerous group of men to leave alive in a time of peace and they needed to be removed to make way for their eventual successors, the Primarchs and the Space Marines. Official Imperial propaganda proclaimed that the Thunder Warriors had heroically died to the last man during the Battle of Mount Ararat, the greatest of their number, Arik Taranis, surviving just long enough to raise the Emperor's banner when victory, and unity, was achieved. But the Emperor could not wipe away the stain entirely, for several Thunder Warriors managed to escape what they called the Culling, including Arik Taranis, who would yet have a role to play in the fate of the Emperor's realm. The Emperor next set in motion His plan to defend and better Mankind across the galaxy, by unifying those lost bastions of humanity scattered across the myriad stars under the aegis of the newborn Imperium. This extraordinary undertaking would become known as the Great Crusade. The Emperor prepared extensively for the Great Crusade in the years after Unity was achieved on Terra; He created the special astro-telepath ( Astropath) corps to link his eventual interstellar dominion together through the use of telepathy, and engineered the creation of the Astronomican, a supremely powerful psychic navigational beacon powered by the Emperor's own will and psychic abilities that would allow simplified and safer interstellar travel through the Warp across far greater distances than before. Chief amongst His designs, however, was the creation of new legions of superhuman, genetically-engineered warriors, the logical extension of the gene-troopers already under his command, though they would be far superior to the gene-enhanced troops of the Imperial Army He had used during the Unification Wars. The Emperor first undertook the Primarch Project, the creation of 20 superhuman infants whose genomes had been designed using His own genetic code as the foundation, who were intended to mature into powerful generals and statesmen for His armies. The Primarchs would be beings of such great mental and physical superiority that nothing merely human could stand against them. To enhance the Primarchs beyond the capabilities that even genetic-engineering allowed, however, the Emperor also drew upon the powers of the Warp he had learned at Molech to enhance His creations, imbuing them with nearly godlike levels of charisma and capability, but also unintentionally making them susceptible to corruption by the entities of the Warp. However, this plan went awry with the intervention of the Ruinous Powers, who feared that the Emperor's plans might succeed too well, vastly increasing the hold of Order over the universe and diminishing their own strength. It is for this reason that all of daemonkind refers to the Emperor as "the Anathema. " While accounts vary as to exactly what happened, the end of the tale is always the same; the Primarchs were cast into the Warp in their gestation chambers from beneath the Himalazian (Himalaya) Mountains in the Emperor's gene-labs despite the multiple psychic wards the Emperor had laid down upon the laboratory, and thought lost. In the aftermath of these events, the Emperor conceived a new plan. Using genetic samples that had been derived from the Primarchs' genomes, He created a caste of warriors who would possess some of the same superhuman qualities of the Primarchs and Himself. These successors to the genetically-enhanced human warriors of the Unification Wars-era were the Legiones Astartes, the Space Marine Legions of the First Founding. After their creation, the Emperor led the 20 Space Marine Legions, all of their Astartes originally recruited from Terran-born males, in their first missions to give them experience in war and diplomacy through the reconquest of the rest of the Solar System. The Space Marines drove alien slavers from the moons of Saturn and Jupiter and most importantly, achieved peace and the eventual integration of Imperial Terra with the Cult Mechanicum of Mars. This crucial military and political alliance, formalised in the 30th Millennium with the signing of the Treaty of Mars, provided the Emperor with much of the technological means and materiel required to extend His crusade into the stars. At the same time, the alliance formalised the creation of the Imperium of Man and established the Imperial bureaucracy on Terra, transforming the Cult Mechanicum into the Adeptus Mechanicus, one of the myriad organisations that comprised the newborn Adeptus Terra, the massive government of the Imperium, the future Priesthood of Earth. The Emperor at the outset of the Great Crusade With the final abatement of the Warp Storms caused by the birth-pangs of the Chaos God Slaanesh and ended by the Fall of the Eldar, the Emperor finally began the Great Crusade at the end of the 30th Millennium. The Emperor's forces, concentrated amongst a rapidly growing cadre of Expeditionary Fleets, rediscovered long-lost human colony worlds, cast out alien oppressors, and claimed vast new territories for the newborn Imperium to exploit across the galaxy. Perhaps most importantly, the Emperor, leading His Crusade, rediscovered His lost sons, the Primarchs, as the Expeditionary Fleets pushed out deeper into the depths of unexplored space. Scattered across the galaxy, the Primarchs were found one-by-one, over a period of many decades, and reunited with their father and their own genetic sons in the Space Marine Legions. All were placed in command of the Astartes Legions created from their respective gene-seed and played a major part in forging their father's Imperium. Together they brought thousands of worlds into Imperial Compliance, establishing the rule of the Imperium over these worlds and inculcating in them the values of the Imperial Truth -- a rationalist, atheistic faith in science and technological progress that rejected all the vestiges of human irrationality and superstition, including all forms of religious faith. The Emperor Himself declared that Mankind would never be free to progress and advance to its destined position as the pre-eminent intelligent species in the Milky Way Galaxy until "the last stone from the last church was cast down onto the last priest. " He had already purged ancient Terra of all its ancient religions and superstitious beliefs by the time the Great Crusade began, even going so far as to personally witness the destruction of the final church on Terra's ancient soil after engaging its resident holy man, Uriah Olathaire, in a battle of ideas, wit and dogma. The Imperial Truth also held that humanity was the species which should rightfully rule the galaxy since its physical form was both the most pure and all of the other intelligent alien races, such as the Eldar, had already tried and failed to maintain galaxy-spanning civilisations. Now it was Mankind's turn to find a place amidst the stars. As almost all intelligent alien species encountered by Mankind had either proven to be irrevocably hostile to humanity or presented a future threat to human dominance and exploitation of the galaxy, xenos species were generally to be exterminated outright if they presented the slightest threat or obstacle to the Imperium. The Emperor believed the Imperial Truth needed to be brought to all the worlds of Mankind, peacefully at first but imposed by war if necessary, because the Emperor believed that true unity was the only way for humanity to survive and prosper in the face of a very hostile universe. If this required the unfortunate use of force against those who refused to understand this necessity, then so be it. Just as He had during the Unification Wars, the Emperor again lamented the loss of innocent lives and the curtailing of individual freedoms that the fleets of the Great Crusade sometimes trod upon, but He could see no other way to safeguard humanity and weaken the endless corruptive power of the Ruinous Powers at the same time. While the Imperial Truth upheld the light of reason and science, it did have one unbreakable proscription: Men must never develop artificially intelligent machines. The Emperor remembered that it was the great war fought by Mankind against the thinking machines known as the Men of Iron that had helped to destroy humanity's last united interstellar civilisation at the end of the Dark Age of Technology and He had no desire to see the human race repeat its past mistakes. As such, when the Expeditionary Fleets of the Great Crusade encountered advanced human civilisations in the dark of space that had developed artificial intelligence, these worlds' populations were simply exterminated outright as potential dangers to the entire body politic of the newborn Imperium. Additionally, there was an increasing concern as the Great Crusade progressed about the use of psychic sorcery by agents and warriors of the Imperium. The Emperor was the most powerful human psyker to have ever lived, but He was deeply ambivalent about the growing spread of the mutant psyker genes through more and more of the human population. He rightly believed that most of Mankind was not yet evolved enough either physically or spiritually to truly control the great power of the Warp or avoid the temptations offered by its more malevolent denizens. More and more often during the progress of the Imperial conquest of the galaxy, the Imperial Army and Space Marines would make planetfall only to find that the populace were in thrall to mysterious powers and unnatural mystics called "sorcerers. " These people were essentially members of Chaos Cults who would resist the forces of the Emperor with sorcerous psychic powers granted them by daemonic entities from the Warp. These psychic powers were also very akin to those used by the Thousand Sons Legion of the Primarch Magnus the Red. The Thousand Sons had come under criticism for their use of sorcery by the Primarch Mortarion of the Death Guard Legion, who knew by his own personal experience with sorcerers on his homeworld of Barbarus the dangers to be found in anything spawned from the Warp, and Leman Russ of the Space Wolves Legion, for whom any battle fought through sleight of hand, clever deceit or any trick other than straight physical combat was by definition dishonourable. Russ found the Thousand Sons' use of sorcery distasteful in the extreme. It was Russ who fought the hardest for the Imperium to ban the use of psychic powers after his own experiences during several campaigns of the Great Crusade where his Space Wolves had fought beside the Thousand Sons. The schism grew so great that it threatened the very stability of the fledgling Imperium and so the Emperor Himself called for an Imperial conclave to resolve the issue once and for all. Both sides of the debate over the use of psychic abilities arrived at the world of Nikaea determined to present their views, with the Emperor as the arbiter, enthroned above the dais in an ancient amphitheater that seated tens of thousands where the conclave was held. On one side of the question were the Witch Hunters like the Sisters of Silence who presented their case by reciting a litany of human suffering inflicted upon the Emperor's own subjects by sorcerers enslaved by what would eventually later be recognised during the Horus Heresy as Chaos, of gibbering mutants who had lost their humanity, and of cults and power-hungry men who turned their psychic gifts to dark purposes. All present were also aware of the terrible damage that had been done by uncontrolled and daemon-possessed psykers during the early days of the Age of Strife. On the other side was a powerful advocate for the continued use of sorcery, the Primarch Magnus the Red. His very presence frightened many, but he began to speak with the great charisma that only a Primarch could wield. His argument was that no knowledge was tainted in and of itself, and no pursuit of knowledge was ever wrong so long as the seeker of that truth was the master of what he learned rather than its pawn. He spoke with finality that his Thousand Sons Astartes had mastered their knowledge of sorcery and that there was no knowledge too labyrinthine for them to grasp or that they could not master to serve Mankind rather than enslaving it. Magnus called on the Emperor not to ban the use of psychic abilities, but to contribute to further research into their usage so that they might be harnessed more fully for the betterment of humanity and the Imperium. Magnus had spoken passionately with great power and the Council of Nikaea became even more divided. While they had strong arguments in their favour to justify their anti-psyker position, the Witch Hunters could not effectively match Magnus' persuasiveness. The tension could easily have been cut with a knife when a group of Space Marine Librarians approached the dais. The Emperor acknowledged them with a nod, and all present fell silent. Among the group were some of the greatest Librarians of the Space Marine Legions. They formed a semi-circle around the dais to indicate that they spoke as one voice, but it was a young Librarian Epistolary who spoke for the group. A psyker, he proposed, was like an athlete, a gifted individual whose native talent must be carefully nurtured. Psykers were not innately evil in themselves, but like any tool, could be used for either good or evil purposes. Sorcery, however, was a knowledge of how to wield psychic powers that had to be sought for, even bargained for with the foul entities of the Warp. No one could be truly sure who or what had benefited in the deal. The Librarians proposed that all psykers be strictly educated by the Imperium with the express purpose of using their abilities to serve Mankind. This should become an immediate Imperial priority. The practice of psychic sorcery would forever be outlawed as an unforgivable offense against Mankind and the worst kind of heresy. The end result of the Council of Nikaea's deliberations was a compromise that offered both the pro-and-anti-psyker factions something. The Council of Nikaea was also the trial of Magnus the Red -- for he was accused of sorcery and of introducing sorcerous practices to the Space Marine Legions through the institution of the corps of Librarians. As the evidence of Magnus' continued practice of sorcery became apparent, the Emperor barely contained His wrath as He pronounced judgement on the Primarch of the Thousand Sons, for He had entrusted His son years before to obey His bidding and foreswear the use of such occult practices because of the dangers inherent to the Warp. He had entrusted only Magnus with the true secrets of the Warp to which only they remained privy, but now it appeared that His son had disobeyed His edicts and at the very least dabbled in the occult and the forbidden black arts of psychic sorcery. The confrontation between father and son is recorded in the Grimoire Hereticus. The Emperor's judgement at the Council of Nikaea proved severe, largely as a result of His anger at Magnus. The Emperor rejected the Librarians' proposed compromise outright. With the exceptions of Navigators and Astropaths who were properly trained, controlled and sanctioned by the Imperium and were necessary to its continued existence, the Space Marine Legions were no longer to employ psykers within their ranks. He commanded that the Primarchs were to close their Librarius departments forthwith and not to indulge the undoubted psychic talents of those Asartes who possessed the gift. All existing Space Marine Librarians were likewise forbidden to make use of their abilities. The Council's rulings also created a new position amongst the Space Marine Legions, the Space Marine Chaplain, to uphold the Imperial Truth and help maintain the purity of an Astartes Legion's dedication and fidelity to the Emperor's commands. The Emperor ordered Magnus to cease the practice of sorcery and incantation, and the pursuit of all knowledge related to magic. Magnus, of course, did not like the idea, and he remained bitterly opposed to the decision made at Nikaea. But in the end, he bent his will to his father the Emperor and agreed to obey, though the machinations of the Ruinous Powers would ultimately lead to a far darker fate for Magnus the Red and his Thousand Sons. The Edicts of Nikaea stood largely untouched for the next 10, 000 standard years as the primary Imperial policy regarding human psychic mutation. Only the edict against the use of Librarians within the ranks of the Space Marines would be reversed as a result of the Horus Heresy, as that terrible civil war made clear to the rulers of the Imperium that Astartes psykers were essential to combat the power of the Forces of Chaos. Imperial Webway Project Well over a standard century into the Great Crusade, the Emperor decided to return to Terra to oversee a special project that He intended to cap His ambitions for humanity. This was the secret Webway Project, in which the Emperor planned to use a special artefact from the Dark Age of Technology -- the Golden Throne -- that had been discovered on Terra beneath a huge and inhospitable desert on the continent of Asia. The Emperor planned to use the Golden Throne to enter and reshape the Labyrinthine Dimension of the Eldar Webway to serve as a direct and instantaneous transport network between all the worlds of the Imperium. This human Webway would recreate the vast network of Warp Portals that had once bound together the Old Ones ' and the Eldar 's ancient interstellar empires and would allow Mankind to advance at a more rapid rate, scientifically and economically, than at any other time in its history. The Webway was a far more efficient means of travel, and most importantly bypassed the depredations of Chaos within the Warp that represented a constant hazard of death or corruption to human faster-than-light space travel. The ultimate objective of the Webway Project was for the Emperor to completely sever humanity from the need for the Warp in its entirety, further depriving Chaos of its power to corrupt and destroy. This would come as the Emperor guided the species in its evolution into a fully psychic race, assuring its ascendancy on the galactic stage beyond what even the lost Eldar Empire had once managed to achieve. A human-dominated Webway would also truly unite the Imperium, preventing Mankind from ever again being divided by time and great distance. But this project would require all of His considerable attention and had to be pursued in secret, lest the Eldar or other opponents of the project learn of it and seek to stop it before the Emperor's efforts could come to fruition. Warp conduit leading into the Imperial Webway The Golden Throne had been built during the Dark Age of Technology to allow human access to the Eldar Webway and took the form of a heavily mechanised throne created from an unknown type of psychically-reactive gold-complected alloy that was suspended over a pair of massive doors composed of the same golden alloy. These doors acted as the portal to the Webway and were supposedly large enough for a Warhound -class Scout Titan to walk through upright. The Golden Throne was originally located in the depths of the Imperial Palace where the Emperor's original gene-laboratory complex had once stood, an area known as the Imperial Dungeon. Hundreds of red-robed Adeptus Mechanicus Tech-priests and Servitors toiled in the Imperial Dungeon, as the Emperor sat upon the Golden Throne and used His immense powers to hold the portal into the Webway open for His workers, who constructed a new section of the Labyrinthine Dimension intended to connect Terra to the rest of the largely abandoned Eldar transdimensional transport network. Because the Webway had been constructed from a psychically-resistant material intended to protect it from penetration by the entities of the Warp, and Mankind did not possess the technology required to replicate it, the Emperor had to personally shield the new human-built sections of the Webway from Warp incursions. This required him to remain on the Golden Throne continuously and was the reason why He had been forced to leave the Great Crusade in the hands of His Primarchs and return to Terra to oversee the project personally. Legio Custodes conducting a patrol within the Imperial Webway As such, following the extraordinary victory of Imperial forces over the greatest Ork WAAAGH! encountered by the Imperium, until the Third War for Armageddon 10, 000 standard years later, during the Ullanor Crusade, the Emperor decided that He was no longer directly needed to command the efforts of the Great Crusade. To this end, the Emperor placed Horus, His favoured and most talented son, in charge of the military advancement of the Great Crusade in His stead. Horus was foremost amongst the Primarchs and was the first re-discovered by the Emperor on the dying world of Cthonia that lay so close to Terra that Warp-Drive was not needed to reach the planet. Horus was the only Primarch to serve in the Great Crusade alongside his father for many solar decades and was the most highly honoured of the Emperor's sons, the Primarch he most trusted and most loved. The two had fought together at the forefront of the early Great Crusade. The Emperor had protected Horus during the Siege of Reillis while Horus repaid the favor during the Battle of Gorro. During the Battle of Gyros-Thravian, the Emperor slew the mighty Ork Warboss Gharkul Blackfang after it had held off three of his Primarchs. With such a history between them, the Emperor felt Horus was the man to lead the Crusade in His absence. Granting Horus the unique title and rank of Warmaster, the Emperor declared that the time had come for His sons to show Him what great leaders they were. Turning His back on direct military matters, the Emperor then created the Council of Terra (the precursor of the High Lords of Terra), the Imperial Tithe, and expanded the civil governing and bureaucratic bodies of the Imperium like the Adeptus Administratum, before retiring in seclusion beneath the Imperial Palace to begin work upon the Golden Throne and His secret plan to invade the Webway of the Eldar and bring at least a portion of it under humanity's control. But the Emperor's decision to not tell His sons why He had retired to Terra as well as His decision to begin shifting the Imperium's government out of the direct control of the Primarchs and to the Terran nobility and bureaucrats whom they detested sowed the seeds of discord among the Primarchs, as did disquiet over the Emperor's decision to raise Horus above his brothers by naming him the Warmaster and thus their commanding officer. From these seeds of ambition, pride and jealousy the Chaos Gods would find fertile ground to corrupt many of the Primarchs and bring on the horrors of the Horus Heresy. Horus Heresy The Emperor meditating on what actions to take against his treacherous son, the Warmaster Horus This turn of events did not please all of the Emperor's subjects, several of His Primarch sons in particular. In the final stages of the Great Crusade, the Emperor's most trusted son Horus succumbed to the temptations of Chaos. This seduction had been set in place over long decades by the Primarch Lorgar and his Word Bearers Legion. The idea of "the Pilgrimage, " a journey to the legendary place where mortals could directly interact with the Gods, was an ancient mythological trope on many human-settled worlds of the Milky Way Galaxy, including Lorgar and the Word Bearers' homeworld of Colchis. Of course, such a place, the Warp, did exist, and one could discover the Primordial Truth of the universe there, i. e. that the Immaterium was dominated by the powerful spiritual entities known as the Chaos Gods. Prompted by the so-called " Pilgrimage of Lorgar " to discover whether or not the Gods once worshipped by the adherents of the Old Faith of the Word Bearers' homeworld of Colchis actually existed, Lorgar journeyed with the Word Bearers Legion's Serrated Sun Chapter to what was then the fringes of known Imperial space as part of the 1301 st Expeditionary Fleet of the Great Crusade. At this time, Lorgar had not yet fallen to the corruption of Chaos, though he had turned against the Emperor of Mankind as a deity no longer worthy of his worship after the Emperor and the Ultramarines had personally humiliated him and the entire Word Bearers Legion on the world of Khur 43 years before the start of the Horus Heresy. The Emperor had come to Khur personally with His Regent, Malcador the Sigillite, after ordering the Ultramarines to destroy the Khurian city of Monarchia where the Emperor was worshipped as a God as a result of the teachings of the Word Bearers. He made his displeasure known to Lorgar about the Word Bearers spreading the religion of Emperor-worship to every world they brought into the Imperium, in direct contravention of the rationalist, atheist philosophy of the Imperial Truth. The Emperor forced the entire Legion to kneel against their will through the use of His psychic might and then explained that they were the only Astartes Legion to have failed His purpose during the Great Crusade. After this humiliation, Lorgar, on the advice of his First Captain Kor Phaeron and the Word Bearers' First Chaplain Erebus, decided to undertake a Pilgrimage to discover if the Gods worshipped by the ancient Old Faith of Colchis were real and worthy of the Word Bearers' faith and allegiance. Lorgar believed that the Emperor was wrong to condemn Mankind 's natural instinct to seek out the divine as an unworthy superstition and he intended to discover if there were truly deities worthy of humanity's respect. To this end, though Lorgar no longer had any love or loyalty for the Emperor, he and his XVII Legion rejoined the Great Crusade but did so only for their efforts to serve as a front for their pursuit of the Pilgrimage. The Word Bearers were also accompanied on this Pilgrimage by 5 members of the Adeptus Custodes who had been set by the Emperor to watch over everything the Word Bearers did to prevent them from falling back into error once more. The Word Bearers' pursuit of any scrap of information that could be found on the Primordial Truth or the nature of the place where Gods and mortals could mingle ultimately led the 1301 st Expeditionary Fleet to the Cadia System near the largest Warp Storm in the universe, later known to the Imperium as the Eye of Terror. The Expeditionary Fleet's Master of Astropaths advised Lorgar that unusual "voices" in the Warp were heard in the vicinity of the great Warp rift, voices that spoke directly to the Primarch as well, which were the voices of the Chaos entities within the Immaterium. It would be in the Cadia System that Lorgar would learn that his suspicions had been correct and that all of the religions across the galaxy that possessed so many similarities to the Colchisian Old Faith were not coincidences, but expressions of worship in the universal truth that was the existence of Chaos. The decision was made to hold orbit over Cadia and for the 1301 st Fleet's elements to make planetfall on the unknown world, designated as 1301-12. The landing force was comprised of Imperial Army, Word Bearers, Adeptus Custodes and Legio Cybernetica elements. The landing party, led by Lorgar, was greeted by a large number of barbaric human tribes, tribes described as "dressed in rags and wielding spears tipped by flint they showed little fear. " Most notable were the barbarians' purple eyes, which reflected the colour of the Eye of Terror itself in the spectrum of visible light. Despite the Custodian Vendatha's protests and request to execute the heathens, the Word Bearers approached the natives. A strange woman emerged from the crowd and addressed the Primarch directly, calling him Lorgar Aurelian and welcoming him to Cadia. This woman, the Chaos priestess Ingethel, would ultimately lead the Primarch down a path of spiritual enlightenment that actually marked the beginning of Lorgar's fall to heresy and Chaos. Later, the Priestess Ingethel of Cadia would initiate a ritual that would see her transformed into the Daemon Prince known as Ingethel the Ascended, and then lead the 1301 st Fleet's scout vessel Orfeo's Lament into the Eye of Terror. Lorgar, Primarch of the Word Bearers, during his pilgrimage to the Eye of Terror Within the Eye of Terror, the Serrated Sun Chapter of the Word Bearers Legion witnessed the failure of the ancient Eldar Empire first-hand in the form of the Crone Worlds that had been scoured of all life that littered the Eye's region of space. Ingethel, of course, lied to the Word Bearers about how the Chaos God Slaanesh had truly been born and warned that the Eldar had failed as a species and suffered the Fall because at the moment of their ascension they were unable to accept the Primordial Truth, i. worship Chaos. They gave birth to a God of Pleasure, yet they had felt no joy at her coming. Their new God, Slaanesh, had awoken to consciousness in the 29 st Millennium to find its worshippers abandoning it out of ignorance and fear, and from the Prince of Pleasure's grief was born the endless storm of the Great Eye (the Eye of Terror), an echo of the birth-screams of the Eldar's new and rejected God. The nature of the Primordial Truth was revealed to the Word Bearers in the ashes of the Eldar empire, and Ingethel warned them that in order for humanity as a species to survive they must not commit the same sins the Eldar did, and must instead accept the worship of Chaos. The surviving Space Marines of the Word Bearers' Serrated Sun Chapter eventually returned to Cadia and related to Lorgar all that had happened and all that they had learned within the Eye, the place where mortals and Gods could meet. Following the visits into the Eye of Terror, Lorgar ordered a cyclonic bombardment of the planet, wiping out the Cadians and leaving the planet abandoned so that no others could stumble upon the secret of the Primordial Truth that had been entrusted to him alone by the Chaos Gods. However, the planet's extremely strategic location meant that it would prove useful to the Imperium and in the 32nd Millennium Imperial colonists were despatched to resettle the world, becoming the ancestors of the present-day population of Cadians. Perhaps as a result of the Eye of Terror's proximity, this later population of Cadians also soon developed the unusual violet-coloured eyes that had marked the first human inhabitants of the planet. This "truth" changed Lorgar and the Word Bearers forever as they were exposed to the Ruinous Powers of Chaos and slowly corrupted, the first of the Legiones Astartes to worship the Chaos Gods and become Traitors to the Emperor in their hearts. Lorgar and the Word Bearers spent the remaining years of the Great Crusade attempting to enlighten humanity about the true spiritual nature of Creation, ultimately resorting to manipulation and deception to sway nine of the Primarchs to the cause of Chaos as their Gods demanded, the most notable being the Warmaster Horus. When it became clear that Mankind could not be enlightened by Chaos without first being forcibly weaned at a great price in blood from the Emperor's false Imperial Truth, Lorgar willingly helped orchestrate the events of the Horus Heresy itself. To this end, Lorgar used his Legion's First Chaplain Erebus as his agent. Erebus stole a Chaos-infected blade known as a Kinebrach Anathame from the branch of humanity known as the Interex during the Luna Wolves ' brief contact with that technologically-advanced offshoot of Mankind. When Horus and the Luna Wolves personally arrived on the moon of the world of Davin to put down a rebellion against Imperial authority led by the former Planetary Governor Eugen Temba, Erebus made sure that the Anathame ended up in Temba's hands where he could use it to wound Horus. Temba had become a servant of the Plague Lord Nurgle and the moon of Davin was a decaying swamp filled with undead horrors like Plague Zombies created from Temba's Imperial Army garrison who caused Horus and the Luna Wolves no small amount of grief. In a final confrontation on the bridge of his downed Imperial warship, Horus slew the vile Nurgleite, but not before the Anathame bit deep into his flesh and delivered a toxin personally created by the Plague Lord, a poison so powerful that not even the Primarch's enhanced immune system could successfully fight it off. In desperation, the Luna Wolves allowed Erebus to take Horus to the Davinite Lodge Priests of the Temple of the Serpent Lodge, a Chaotic temple on Davin, who promised that they could heal the Warmaster. The astral form of Magnus the Red, Primarch of the Thousand Sons, breaches the sanctity of the Imperial Palace on Terra During his "healing, " the Warmaster's spirit was actually sent into the Immaterium to meet with the Ruinous Powers with Erebus as his guide. Drawing on the Primarch's own untapped subconscious wells of ambition and jealousy, Horus was shown in a vision granted by the Ruinous Powers that the reason the Emperor had left the Great Crusade and returned to Terra was so that he could attempt to reach godhood, abandon all his sons and betray the Imperial Truth's promise to enlighten humanity and free it from the shackles of false gods and organised religion. Believing this vision of the future, which ironically was actually a vision of the Imperium that would only come to pass because of his betrayal of the Emperor, Horus saw it as his duty to save the Imperium of Man from such a fate and turned on his father, accepting the assistance of the Ruinous Powers in the guise of Chaos Undivided in return for his actions against the Emperor. Having corrupted fully half of the Space Marine Legions to the service of Chaos, Horus then led them against the Emperor and plunged the fledgling galactic empire into a colossal civil war that lasted for 7 standard years and began with the terrible betrayals of the Loyalist forces during the Battles of Istvaan III and Istvaan V. This conflict, known to later generations as the Horus Heresy, became the most terrible in human history, and billions perished as the Traitor Legions tore apart the empire they had helped to forge. The climax of the conflict came during the Battle of Terra, when the Traitor Legions and the other Forces of Chaos that they led unsuccessfully assaulted the heart of the Imperial Palace itself. Unable to breach the Inner Palace and the throne room of the Emperor due to the sacrifice of countless Loyalist Astartes and the victory of the Primarch Sanguinius over the Bloodthirster Greater Daemon Ka'Bandha, Horus feared that his forces were running out of time as Loyalist reinforcements moved to reach Terra and relieve their compatriots. Hoping to force a final confrontation that would decide the course of the war once and for all, Horus deliberately dropped the Void Shields surrounding his flagship, the Vengeful Spirit, which stood in orbit above Mankind's homeworld. The Emperor within the Imperial Webway leads the Legio Custodes and Silent Sisterhood against the Forces of Chaos Throughout all of this, the Emperor had been forced to remain on the mechanism of the Golden Throne. At the start of the Horus Heresy, the Primarch Magnus the Red had violated the Edicts of Nikaea to use sorcery to penetrate the psychic wards of the Imperial Palace and bring news of Horus' treachery directly to the Emperor. The Emperor had refused to believe Magnus' warning about His favoured son and instead came to believe that it was Magnus who had been corrupted by Chaos because of his decision to continue to use sorcery in violation of Imperial law. The Emperor despatched Leman Russ and his Space Wolves Legion to bring Magnus back to Terra to account for his actions, but Horus tampered with the Emperor's orders and had the Space Wolves launch an all-out assault on the Thousand Sons Legion 's homeworld of Prospero that ultimately led to the fall of the Thousand Sons and Magnus to Chaos and the service of the Chaos God Tzeentch in order to save both themselves and all the knowledge they had collected over the centuries. At the same time, Magnus' spell to penetrate the Imperial Palace's psychic wards had also badly damaged the Webway Project, allowing hordes of daemons to gleefully punch through the Emperor's weakened psychic shield and assault the thousands of Adeptus Mechanicus workers constructing the human portions of the Webway. The Adeptus Custodes and the Sisters of Silence were forced to fight a desperate battle to prevent the daemons from pouring through the portal generated by the Golden Throne and into the dungeon of the Imperial Palace itself. While the Imperial forces were ultimately successful in fighting back the daemonic assault, only the Emperor was powerful enough to keep the portal closed and the daemons trapped within the human-constructed Webway. With his attentions turned to this crisis, the Emperor left the management of Horus' rebellion to Malcador the Sigillite and the Primarch Rogal Dorn of the Imperial Fists Legion. During this time, the Emperor engaged in telepathic communications with the low-ranked Astropath Kai Zulane, who had been granted a precognitive vision of the Horus Heresy's conclusion and the Emperor's terrible fate at the hands of his best-loved son. During their psychic communications, the Emperor revealed He not only had already known what his ultimate fate would be, but had come to accept it as the price of his ambitions' failure. Later Corvus Corax, the Primarch of the Raven Guard Legion, deeply distraught over the almost complete annihilation of his Legion during the Drop Site Massacre on Istvaan V, came to the Imperial Palace and demanded an audience with the Emperor. Diverting some of his attention from the strenuous task of maintaining the psychic defences of Terra from the breach in the Webway, the Emperor psychically imbued the secrets of creating Astartes into his son's mind. Corax then began rebuilding the Raven Guard using these techniques to rapidly accelerate Astartes development, though his efforts were ultimately corrupted by the insidious actions of the Alpha Legion. The Raven Guard would remain one of the so-called Shattered Legions throughout the rest of the Heresy and would play little further part in its outcome. After five standard years of protecting the human homeworld from the consequences of Magnus' Webway breach while seated on the Golden Throne, the Emperor began to exhibit the first signs of physical fatigue. As the psychic strain worsened, his nose would sometimes bleed, and this image would be projected even in the telepathic visions he sent to his Legio Custodes Custodian Tribune Ra Endymion. After sensing the birth of the powerful daemon Drach'nyen in the Warp, the Emperor knew the War Within the Webway was reaching its climax and the ultimate fate of Mankind would soon be decided. He ordered the Sisters of Silence to gather a thousand psykers across the galaxy and sacrifice them to the Golden Throne. This allowed the device to be powered for a single solar day without the Emperor's presence, and he used that time to plunge into the Webway and rescue the retreating Imperial forces. After sweeping aside the daemonic hordes, he confronted Drach'nyen and sealed it into the body of Ra Endymion, telling him to run as far as he could into the depths of the Webway in order to keep humanity safe from the daemon's influence. Afterwards the Emperor was forced to seal the Webway portal on Terra by again becoming a prisoner to the Golden Throne. The Emepror lamented to His followers that His great work was ruined and maintained that now that the Webway Project had failed to become a reality, humanity was ultimately doomed to the same fate as the Eldar, ultimate extinction at the hands of the Forces of Chaos. Though the Emperor already knew that Horus would be defeated at His hands, another Chaos Lord would soon take his place as the Warmaster of Chaos and seek to continue his mission to destroy the Imperium. To the shock of his Custodian Diocletian Coros, the Emperor declared the Imperium of Man to ultimately be doomed, whether it was in a single standard year or ten thousand, and for the first time admitted that even He did not know what to do to save Mankind from extinction. As a result, as the Horus Heresy reached its climax with the Traitors' assault on Terra itself seven standard years after its start, the Emperor was forced to remain on the Golden Throne at all times save for the few moments when Malcador the Sigillite, the Regent of Terra and the second strongest human psyker, could take His place. The Emperor and Horus unleash their potent psychic abilities against each other aboard the Warmaster 's flagship, Vengeful Spirit. When the Emperor learned of Horus' action in lowering his flagship's Void Shields during the final Battle of Terra, He realised that His treacherous son was actually offering an invitation to battle. The Emperor believed He had to take the war to Horus to put an end to the terrible conflict once and for all. He had Malcador the Sigillite take his place upon the Golden Throne to protect Terra from a daemonic assault and prepared a strike team of Astartes to face the Warmaster on his own ground. The last act of the bloody treachery of the Horus Heresy was played out above Terra, as the Emperor led a desperate assault of Imperial Fists and Blood Angels Space Marines against Horus' Chaos-corrupted flagship, using teleporter technology to make their way aboard. The Primarch Sanguinius also accompanied the assault force, but the Warmaster's Chaotic powers caused the attackers to be split up and teleported to random locations throughout the massive warship. Sanguinius reached Horus first and met him in a mighty battle that resulted in his own death at his brother's hands, but not before the angelic Primarch managed to create a small gap in the Warmaster's Terminator Armour. The Emperor eventually managed to make His way to the Battle Barge's bridge. Though the Emperor was a being of unfathomable psychic and physical might, Horus had become a being of monstrous Chaotic strength, bloated with the combined powers of all four Chaos Gods, the true champion of Chaos Undivided, even as the Emperor remained the Champion of Order. The two champions engaged one another in a tragic battle of father and son, as Horus mortally wounded the Emperor, tearing off one of His arms and shattering His internal organs, largely because the Emperor still loved Horus and could not bring Himself to use the full extent of His psychic abilities to defeat His son. At the critical point in the battle, a lone Adeptus Custodes warrior entered the Battle Barge's bridge, having successfully caught up to his master. Horus flayed him alive with but a look using the potent powers of Chaos sorcery that he now commanded. In that instant of Horus' pure cruelty and casual disregard for human life, the Emperor finally realised how truly far His favoured son had fallen into the grip of the Ruinous Powers and how Mankind would suffer and ultimately be destroyed under his rule. The sacrifice of the Custodian bought the Emperor the time He needed to deliver a finishing blow to Horus. With iron resolve, He gathered the full strength of His mind at last and delivered a massive psychic attack through the chink in his Terminator Armour that killed Horus almost instantly and obliterated his very soul from the Warp so that the Chaos Gods could not resurrect their champion. In his final moments, the corrupting powers of Chaos briefly relinquished their hold on the Warmaster's soul and the Emperor sensed the return of His son's sanity in the seconds before his consciousness was utterly obliterated. The Emperor felt only Horus' utter horror at what he had done under the influence of Chaos and gratitude that he had at last been released from its grip before the Warmaster's psyche dissolved into shining motes of psychic energy dispersed amidst the howling voices of the Immaterium. The Emperor confronts Horus on the Battleship Vengeful Spirit It was in this battered and bleeding state that the Emperor was found by Rogal Dorn, the Primarch of the Imperial Fists Legion who had accompanied the assault force onto the Vengeful Spirit. Dorn returned with the Emperor to the Imperial Palace, where Malcador the Sigillite simply crumbled to ash upon relinquishing his place upon the Golden Throne, for his body and mind had been burned out by the strain of holding the Golden Throne's portal closed for the time that the Emperor had been aboard the Warmaster's flagship. The dying Emperor quickly dictated plans to Dorn for the modification of the Golden Throne into an arcane life support machine that would sustain His remaining cells in an undying state between life and true death for over ten thousand years, and He was subsequently interred in this altered version of the Golden Throne. The throne's mechanisms would also allow the Emperor to maintain the Astronomican and battle the influence of the Chaos Gods in the Warp so long as His mind was empowered and sustained with the psychic energies of 1, 000 psykers every day, preventing a daemonic incursion on Terra and helping to sustain Mankind against Chaos' corruptive influence throughout the galaxy. His strength rapidly failing, the Emperor had only enough time to give His final, brief instructions to Rogal Dorn before the Golden Throne's modified mechanisms were activated and He was placed within an unending stasis for more than 10, 000 standard years. Only His mind remained active within the Warp as His dying body continued to decay at a glacially slow pace. At Present The Emperor of Mankind sits upon the Golden Throne in the Sanctum Imperialis at the heart of the Imperial Palace As mentioned above, the Emperor's shattered and mortally-wounded body was discovered on the bridge of the Vengeful Spirit by the Primarch of the Imperial Fists, Rogal Dorn, who, following the Emperor's instructions, oversaw His internment within the Golden Throne, the arcane device modified at the Emperor's own direction to sustain his mind and decaying body. The Imperial Cult, after its establishment as the state religion of the Imperium in the 34th Millennium, would later claim that this internment within the Golden Throne had been necessary so that the Emperor could leave the physical plane behind and "ascend" once more to his proper place in the Immaterium as the one, true God of Mankind after sacrificing Himself to save humanity from the Traitor Horus. The Emperor has remained in the Golden Throne since His "ascension" to this day, neither fully living nor wholly dead. Although the device was initially intended to be used as the nexus of the Emperor's secret project to utilise the Eldar Webway for the good of humanity, the Golden Throne also now functions as a complex life support device and psychic amplifier, projecting the Emperor's mind into the Warp and across the galaxy. The Golden Throne itself lies in the Sanctum Imperialis, the great hall at the heart of the Imperial Palace guarded by the Emperor's Companions, a special and highly elite bodyguard contingent of the Adeptus Custodes. The Emperor's decaying physical form is preserved by the vast arcane machinery of the Golden Throne, which itself is maintained by a legion of Tech-priests from the Adeptus Mechanicus. His psychic essence is spread out across the whole of the galaxy through the Warp, watching over as much of humanity as He can manage in His current depleted state, in order to keep the Ruinous Powers at bay. The Golden Throne is also connected to a massive psychic beacon known as the Astronomican, which makes faster than light travel possible for Imperial starships outfitted with a Warp-Drive by generating a telepathic signal by which the specialised mutant psykers known as Navigators are able to navigate through Warpspace. The Astronomican signal is originated by the Emperor's mind, but is amplified and directed by a choir of 10, 000 human psykers. These individuals are selected for their psychic prowess, their ability to control their power, and are put to the task only after undergoing a rigorous process that includes their soul-binding to the Emperor to strengthen their minds against possession by daemonic entities. The life force of these psykers is consumed over the course of several months, 1, 000 of whom die every day, which means that replacements must constantly be found and brought to Terra aboard the infamous Black Ships of the Adeptus Astra Telepathica, the Imperial organisation responsible for regulating humans who possess the psychic mutation. The selected psykers are, for the most part, indoctrinated to accept their fate as their sacred duty for the Imperium, for they are too dangerous to those around them to be allowed to live, and the sacrifice of their life is the greatest good that they can do in service to the God-Emperor. Those who prove less willing to give themselves for the glorious cause of Mankind are sedated and their psychic lifeforce fed to the power collection mechanism of the Golden Throne regardless. The Imperium must survive, regardless of the daily cost in lives. An Ecclesiarchy Icon of the Emperor on the Golden Throne in the Imperial Palace, surrounded by the Adeptus Custodes It is said that the Emperor's existence is one of endless pain and suffering, and that it is only His utter devotion to the human race that keeps Him from accepting the death He now desperately longs to embrace. Should the Emperor die, then the Astronomican will become useless, and humanity will no longer be able to safely travel through the Warp using its current technology (although this may be disputed by the fact that humanity traveled the stars before the Emperor sat upon the Golden Throne, during the Dark Age of Technology and the Great Crusade). The Imperium would then become fractured and disintegrate into civil war. The reliance on the Emperor's life force for guidance and protection, and the dedication of His subjects to prevent his death, is the foundation for the Emperor's divinity as held by the Imperial Cult and countless billions of human beings across the galaxy. Only the Astartes of the Space Marine Chapters do not openly believe the Emperor is divine, instead dimly remembering and honouring His determination to free Mankind from the shackles of superstition and organised religion even as they revere Him as the founder of the Imperium and the greatest human leader in history. Yet something unexpected has happened. As the Imperium came under assault from the greatest conglomeration of the Forces of Chaos since the Horus Heresy with the unleashing of Abaddon the Despoiler 's 13th Black Crusade in 999. M41 and the fall of the Fortress World of Cadia, unleashing the Great Rift across the galaxy, one of the Emperor's sons, the Primarch Roboute Guilliman, has been reborn. Resurrected from the dreamless sleep of stasis in the Temple of Correction on his homeworld of Macragge during the Ultramar Campaign by the technological genius of Archmagos Dominus Belisarius Cawl and the power of Ynnead, the Eldar god of the dead, Guilliman returned to the Throneworld during the Terran Crusade. He entered the Imperial Palace and spoke with his father the Emperor for the first time in ten thousand standard years. What passed between them remains unknown, but when Guilliman emerged, he took up the burden of leadership once more, becoming the Lord Commander of the Imperium, the de facto master of the High Lords of Terra, and launched the Indomitus Crusade, spearheaded by the newly-created Primaris Space Marines, to ensure that his father's empire would survive the coming of the Noctis Aeterna. Yet time may still be running out. In 999. M41, the Adeptus Mechanicus reported a terrible secret to the High Lords of Terra and the Adeptus Custodes. The highly advanced life support mechanisms of the Golden Throne have begun to fail and the Tech-priests no longer possess the knowledge necessary to repair them. Unless some solution can be found or some miracle intervenes, the Emperor's mummified body will eventually die and His mind and spirit will gutter out like a candle in the wind amidst the madness of the Warp, leaving Mankind all alone in the darkness. And then the predators will feast... God-Emperor A great statue of the God-Emperor erected upon an Imperial Shrine World. In an ironic twist of fate for a man who fought throughout His life to move Mankind away from superstition and religious faith, the Emperor of Mankind was already being worshiped as a living deity before the start of the Horus Heresy. The Primarch Lorgar of the Word Bearers Legion had penned a book, the Lectitio Divinitatus, which laid out a compelling case for why the Emperor of Mankind was more than a man but a God made flesh. It held that no mortal being could have accomplished all that the Emperor had in uniting the techno-barbarian tribes and nations of Terra and then reuniting much of the human-settled galaxy under His rule. Nor could a simple human being possess His extraordinary command of psychic abilities, his advanced scientific knowledge which displayed an understanding of the universe on a primal level or His immense compassion and good will towards all Mankind. The argument proved persuasive, and before the Great Crusade had even ended, a number of different cults dedicated to Emperor-worship had already sprung up, using the Lectitio Divinitatus as their sacred book and often adopting the name of the tome for the name of their faith. The worship of the Emperor as a God was strictly forbidden under the doctrine of the Imperial Truth and was a serious crime, the same crime that ultimately led to the humiliation of Lorgar and his Word Bearers upon the world of Khur and their turn towards the worship of the Chaos Gods instead to meet their need for faith. While Lorgar ultimately repudiated the Lectitio Divinitatus and replaced it with the Chaotic Book of Lorgar, millions of other men and women during the dark days of the Horus Heresy increasingly turned to the worship of the Emperor as a source of inspiration and strength to survive the many horrors of that time. The demonstrated power that devout worship of the Emperor gave to His followers to protect themselves and others from the daemonic entities of the Warp only furthered the spread of this new religion. Among the peoples of the Imperium, only the Space Marines of the Adeptus Astartes, who dimly remember the truth of the man from whom they are descended, do not worship the Emperor as a God. They prefer instead to venerate Him as the pinnacle of what a human being is capable of achieving and an example to be followed. This refusal to worship the Emperor as prescribed by the Imperial Creed is also one of the reasons that the Astartes often come into conflict with the Ecclesiarchy and the Inquisition. At the end of the Horus Heresy, the Emperor's shattered form was interred within the cybernetic mechanisms of the Golden Throne so that His mind could still have a physical anchor in the material universe while it extended throughout the Warp, eventually encompassing nearly the entire territory of the Imperium of Man. As the centuries passed, the worship of the Emperor only spread further, and by the 32nd Millennium the once small cults of Emperor-worshippers had been amalgamated into the Imperial Cult, its teeming trillions of human believers served by the massive interstellar curia known as the Ecclesiarchy or more formally as the Adeptus Ministorum after it was accepted by the High Lords of Terra as the state religion of the Imperium. The Emperor of Mankind was now truly more than a secular ruler -- He was the God-Emperor, the one, true God of all humanity. His will was interpreted and executed by the High Lords of Terra of the Senatorum Imperialis, His laws were enforced by the Adeptus Arbites, His body and His Imperial Palace were guarded by the Adeptus Custodes, His Adeptus Astartes defended the Imperium and the Inquisition that He had directed Malcador the Sigillite to create at the start of the Horus Heresy had grown into a power unto itself, protecting the Imperium from the Emperor's enemies both without and within. Despite His protests to the contrary, the effect of trillions of human beings expressing a deep faith in His divinity has massively empowered the Emperor's mind and soul within the psychically-reactive Immaterium, where reality is shaped by the collective beliefs and unconscious desires of the galaxy's most populous intelligent species. The Imperial Creed teaches that far from being a defeat, the internment of the Emperor within the Golden Throne allowed His divine spirit to ascend so that He could guide and protect all Mankind more directly, no longer confined by the limitations of the flesh. It is for this reason that the skull has become so prevalent in Imperial iconography and architecture, as a symbol of the Emperor's sacrifice of His own life for the sake of his people. Whatever He may have been before the Horus Heresy, the Emperor now truly is a God within the Warp, equal in power to any one of the four major Chaos Gods, and very likely as powerful as all four of them combined, as He has become perhaps the strongest spiritual force for Order in the Milky Way Galaxy. Though His body is a shattered wreck, more corpse than man, as long as the Golden Throne can maintain even the barest hint of His life functions, He will be able to maintain His presence within the Warp, guiding and directing the psychic beacon known as the Astronomican that is so vital to the Imperium's commerce, defence and communications even as His mind must claim the life energies of 1, 000 human psykers a day to empower the beacon. As noted above, it is the Emperor's powerful mind, projected and amplified in the Immaterium by the arcane mechanisms of the Golden Throne, that guides and maintains the psychic beacon of the Astronomican empowered by the daily life forces of thousands of psykers. At the same time, despite His current decayed condition, the Emperor can still cryptically communicate His wishes to select psykers through the arcane medium of the Emperor's Tarot. He can also communicate through direct dreams and visions to select non-psychic human beings whose faith in Him is strong enough to forge the necessary link. The Emperor can also provide a number of psychic protections against the powers of Chaos and its daemons through the connection of faith and He may be able to influence the physical universe in a number of other unexpected ways. For instance, it is widely believed in the Imperium that the Warp Storm known as the Storm of the Emperor's Wrath that appeared in the Ultima Segmentum during the Age of Apostasy in the 36th Millennium was directly created by the will of the Emperor, the incarnate effect of His anger over the usurpation of the Imperium's government by the tyrant High Lord Goge Vandire. It is also believed that the Emperor's might within the Warp directly holds the power of Chaos at bay, and were the Emperor to be absent from the Immaterium, Chaos would break through the physical boundaries of the universe, transforming the entire galaxy into a realm of insanity and horror very much like the Eye of Terror. It is also known to a very few among the highest ranks of the Inquisition that within His throne room in the Imperial Palace, the Sanctum Imperialis, the Emperor possesses the power to directly manipulate reality, including the ability to relativistically slow or even stop the arrow of time outright. Yet the God-Emperor is a tormented soul. Unable to interact more directly with His worshipers, He is horrified by what His Imperium has become over the last 10, 000 standard years in the wake of the terrible wounds inflicted by the Horus Heresy and the ongoing threats to Mankind from Chaos, xenos, mutants and the Traitors within. The Age of the Imperium has not delivered the Golden Age of Mankind that the Emperor had hoped would result from all His efforts. Instead, the Imperium has delivered stability, but at the cost of technological stagnation and intellectual regression, political repression, constant exploitation of the many by the few, rabid xenophobia and often savage religious intolerance. All the evils of humanity that the Emperor had hoped to bring to an end have only proliferated during the 10, 000 Terran years that the Imperium has ruled the human race in His name. Yet the Emperor endures in His endless pain, knowing that His death would cripple the Imperium and deny humanity of both the limited guidance He can still offer and the protection He provides against Chaos. The Emperor fears that without Him, Mankind will not survive. For this reason, despite all its imperfections, He allows the Imperium to endure. On rare occasions, the Emperor works through His chosen servants to make the lot of humanity a little better. He fans the embers of hope among Mankind as the End Time draws nigh and the Golden Throne's mechanisms wind down like a broken watch... The Star Child Note: This section discusses material that was once considered canon but whose canonicity is now questionable. The concept of the Star Child in relation to the Emperor is similar to that of the Eldar 's potential God Ynnead, the Lord of the Dead, who according to their belief will form in the Infinity Circuits of the Eldar Craftworlds when the last of their race has died on the physical plane. The belief in the Star Child is currently considered by the Inquisition to be a vile heresy spread by Chaos Cultists of Tzeentch, though the truth of the matter might be otherwise. The concept has two aspects: the first is that the Emperor's soul exists in the Warp where it will form a new entity upon the Emperor's death -- the Star Child -- who will become the Emperor Reborn, and the second is that the Emperor during his long life on Terra has many living descendants. Over the almost 50, 000 years the Emperor walked hidden among Mankind, he formed many families and fathered many children. His male descendants have inherited direct portions of the Emperor's genome and they are immortal like their father, though unlike him they are sterile in every case. His female descendants are simply normal human women, though they may exhibit potent psychic abilities, particularly forms of precognition. Unlike the Emperor, who is the greatest psyker ever born in the galaxy, the Emperor's scions are actually psychic " blanks " or "nulls" possessing no presence in the Warp. As a result, they are both undetectable by psychic means and cannot be affected in any way by psychic or sorcerous powers. A hidden group within the Imperium that call themselves the Illuminati know of the existence of the Emperor's scions, and are also aware that the Emperor is failing as his life slowly gutters out despite the creaking ministrations of the Golden Throne. They also know of the Fall of the Eldar which gave birth to the Chaos God Slaanesh and seek to prevent Mankind's own fall to Chaos. The fall of Man to the Ruinous Powers would create a new, fifth major Chaos God in the Immaterium, and with its birth, the Warp would once again intrude into realspace for a number of millennia, encompassing the entire galaxy in massive Warp Storms, as during the Age of Strife. The Illuminati, who as a group are those incredibly rare individuals who managed to actually survive and defeat a daemonic possession of their bodies through sheer willpower, seek out the Emperor's descendants and tell them of their true heritage. With the realisation that this knowledge brings, the biological sons of the Emperor then become known as the "Sensei. " The Illuminati gather the Sensei together, protect them from the Inquisition, and pave the way for the rebirth of the Emperor. Their plan is ultimately to sacrifice the Sensei to the Emperor, possibly at the moment the Emperor's body finally fails upon the Golden Throne; he will be renewed by the Sensei's life forces, and will be reborn and regenerated as the Sensei-Emperor to again lead his race in person, stepping renewed from the Golden Throne. The Star Child background was introduced in the original version of Warhammer 40, 000, and dismissed as heretical in the 3rd Edition in favour of the more vague " Iron Men and Stone Men" history of an ancient cybernetic conflict between humanity and a race of artificial intelligences they created during the Dark Age of Technology. The Emperor is the incarnation of the extinct shamans of ancient Earth who, with their prophetic powers and connection to the Warp in its natural and uncorrupted form, had guided the various peoples of ancient Man. According to the Illuminati's beliefs, after Horus rebelled and mortally wounded the Emperor's physical body during their final battle aboard his Battle Barge, Vengeful Spirit, the Emperor's body and soul could no longer remain as one; his soul melted into the Immaterium and only a tiny core of the Emperor's humanity remained whole. This spark of the Emperor's soul was like a small child in a tiny reed boat adrift in the chaotic eddies of the Warp. Since the Emperor's soul survived, there was a possibility that his whole essence could be reborn into the physical world once more in a new physical body. In the same way the ancient shamans died together to reincarnate as the single man who would become the Emperor, the Emperor's death could herald the birth of a new savior for humanity. That time would lie far in the future, when Mankind's collective desire for a new savior would strengthen the core of the Emperor's soul in the Warp and rekindle it to new life. The soul of the Emperor adrift in the Warp is the being referred to by the Illuminati as the Star Child. The humans that were left in charge of the Imperium after the Horus Heresy and the loss of all the Primarchs had no real understanding of what had happened to the Emperor. Though the Emperor's body continued to live within the Golden Throne and his potent mind continued to be a beacon for humanity in the form of the Astronomican, his soul is a new, benevolent God of the Warp, the God of Humanity, waiting to be born. The Star Child is also believed by some Illuminati to be the pure compassion of his soul which the Emperor thrust from himself into the Warp in order to possess the determination required to eradicate the soul of his most beloved Primarch and son, the Warmaster Horus. The Imperial Inquisition (particularly its daemon -hunting Ordo Malleus) has always been at war with the Sensei, the "Emperor's Sons". In 997. M41, Inquisitor Fortez reported that he and his colleagues Alexio and Credo determined that the Temple of the Star Child on Levilnor IV consisted of unwitting pawns of Tzeentch, so they liquidated it. It is this incident which has led the Inquisition to currently consider any belief in the Star Child to be a heresy promulgated by the followers of the Lord of Change to lead Imperial citizens astray. It has been noted in some Imperial sources that the ammunition for the Inquisition's Psycannons and Psyk-out Grenades derive their anti-psychic effect from being impregnated with extremely rare negative psychic energy; the only known source of this energy being the byproducts of the Emperor's metabolism removed daily by the Golden Throne. Other Imperial sources note that the Inquisition has discovered this energy can also be produced from the rendered-down bodies of the Sensei. The God-Incarnate The Thorian faction of the Inquisition believes in a similar resurrectionist concept to that of the Star Child concerning the Emperor's eventual rebirth and reincarnation called the God-Incarnate. These Inquisitors hold that the Emperor's divine essence in the Warp may be transferred to a physical vessel, a specially-chosen human receptacle known as a "Divine Avatar. " Wargear The Emperor's Sword - This famed sword was wielded by the Emperor Himself during the Great Crusade and was passed on to the resurrected Primarch Roboute Guilliman after he assumed the mantle of Lord Commander of the Imperium for the second time in 999. M41 in the wake of the 13th Black Crusade and the Ultramar Campaign by the Archmagos Dominus Belisarius Cawl. The weapon had been kept safely in Cawl's possession on Mars for over 10, 000 standard years, since the end of the Horus Heresy and Guilliman's first tenure as the Lord Commander. Touched by the Emperor's own psychic might, this finely wrought, master-crafted blade is lit from hilt to tip with leaping flames. When it is swung, the burning blade draws pyrotechnic arcs through the air, able to slice through the stoutest of armour with ease. Notes The reach of the Astronomican is said to be around 70, 000 light years, which by default becomes the maximum radius of Astronomican-assisted Warp -navigable space. According to some sources, the decaying Emperor is a cause of the Astronomican's slowly weakening intensity. Presumably, this would progressively affect Warp navigation over the centuries in the outer limits of the Imperium. Sources Dark Heresy: Ascension (RPG), pp. 161-162 Dark Heresy: Disciples of the Dark Gods (RPG), pp. 175-176 Eye of Terra (Anthology) edited by Laurie Golding (Cover) Gathering Storm - Part Three - Rise of the Primarch (7th Edition), pg. 128 Horus Heresy: Collected Visions, pp. 350-351 Inquisitor - The Thorians  (Sourcebook) by Gav Thorpe Realm of Chaos: The Lost and the Damned, pp. 174-183 Realm of Chaos: Slaves to Darkness Warhammer 40, 000: Rogue Trader (1st Edition) Warhammer 40, 000 Compendium Warhammer 40, 000 Rulebook (6th Edition), pp. 136-139, 141, 144, 158-163, 165-177, 186-187, 195 Warhammer 40, 000 Rulebook (5th Edition) Warhammer 40, 000 Rulebook (3rd Edition) The Inquisition War (Novel) by Ian Watson Descent of Angels (Novel) by Mitchell Scanlon Legion (Novel) by Dan Abnett Mechanicum (Novel) by Graham McNeill Tales of Heresy (Anthology) edited by Nick Kyme & Lindsey Preistley, "The Last Church" by Graham McNeill A Thousand Sons (Novel) by Graham McNeill Nemesis (Novel) by James Swallow The First Heretic (Novel) by Aaron Dembski-Bowden Prospero Burns (Novel) by Dan Abnett The Outcast Dead (Novel) by Graham McNeill Deliverance Lost (Novel) by Gav Thorpe The Inquisition War (Novel) by Ian Watson, pp. 224-228 Vengeful Spirit (Novel) by Graham McNeill, Chapter 16 The Master of Mankind (Novel) by Aaron Dembski-Bowden, Chapter 2, Chapter 13, Epilogue Warhammer Community Online - Black Library Live: The Big Reveals.

49:55 please. The intro puts a chill down my spine.

Emperor watch full length full

Top definitions related content examples explore dictionary british [ em -per-er] / ˈɛm pər ər / noun the male sovereign or supreme ruler of an empire: the emperors of Rome. Chiefly British. a size of drawing or writing paper, 48 × 72 inches (122 × 183 cm). Words nearby emperor empathize, empathy, empedocles, empennage, emperipolesis, emperor, emperor butterfly, emperor jones, the, emperor moth, emperor penguin, empery Origin of emperor 1175–1225; Middle English empero(u)r < Anglo-French; Old French empereor < Latin imperātor orig., one who gives orders, ruler, equivalent to imperā(re) to order, command ( im- im- 1 + -perāre, combining form of parāre to provide, prepare) + -tor -tor OTHER WORDS FROM emperor em·per·or·ship, noun pre·em·per·or, noun Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2020 Examples from the Web for emperor At times, Mario Cuomo seemed to have the humility of a Jesuit and the goals of an emperor. That is, of course, unless one has something new to say about the French emperor. The problem, as many an emperor could confirm, is that culminating points are easiest to identify in retrospect. He also eventually comes around, killing the Emperor and saving his son, Luke. The council concluded with the emperor Constantine insisting that the bishops come to an agreement over the wording of the creed. The Emperor rode thither in haste, while Mahommed betook himself to the shore of the sea. I placed it on the grass some distance away, while the Emperor followed me, utterly astounded at the discovery. At last it happened that the Emperor came upon a book which said this, and he at once sent for his Chamberlain. Terrified by Josephine's condition, the emperor hurried to Paris, and sent his own physician to inquire after her condition. This king despatched a return embassy to Fu-nan and his ambassadors met there an official sent by the Emperor of China. British Dictionary definitions for emperor emperor noun a monarch who rules or reigns over an empire Also called: emperor moth any of several large saturniid moths with eyelike markings on each wing, esp Saturnia pavonia of Europe See also giant peacock moth Derived forms of emperor emperorship, noun Word Origin for emperor C13: from Old French empereor, from Latin imperātor commander-in-chief, from imperāre to command, from im- + parāre to make ready Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012.

Emperor watch full length season. Emperor watch full length 2016. Emperor watch full length hair. Emperor Watch Full length. Emperor Watch Full lengthy. Ihshan was just. Emperor Background information Origin Notodden, Norway Genres Black metal, symphonic black metal, progressive metal [1] Years active 1991–2001, 2005–2007, 2013–2014, 2016–present Labels Deathlike Silence, Century Media, Candlelight, Nuclear Blast Website www. emperorhorde Members Ihsahn Samoth Trym Past members Mortiis Alver Tchort Faust Emperor is a Norwegian black metal band formed in 1991, regarded as highly influential by critics and emerging black metal bands. [2] [3] [4] The group split up in 2001, but reunited from 2005 to 2007 for a few festival dates and brief US tours, and again reunited in 2013 to 2014. Emperor reformed for the third time in 2016. The group was founded by Ihsahn (guitar/vocal) and Samoth (then, drums). Biography [ edit] Early career and In the Nightside Eclipse (1991–1995) [ edit] In their youth, Ihsahn and Samoth met at a rock music seminar. [5] The two young men began playing together under various names; first Dark Device, then Xerasia, then Embryonic. The group soon evolved into the now well-known band Thou Shalt Suffer. Soon, however, Samoth began to write music outside of Thou Shalt Suffer, and together with Ihsahn and a new bass player called Mortiis (later of his own eponymous band Mortiis), Emperor was formed. After a short while together, the band released a demo entitled Wrath of the Tyrant. It quickly gained popularity in the underground and attracted the attention of the then-start-up label Candlelight. Soon afterwards, a record contract was signed, Samoth moved to rhythm guitar, Ihsahn continued the vocal duties and lead guitars, and Faust was recruited as a drummer. Emperor released their debut EP, Emperor, under Candlelight Records. The band then was signed to the infamous first black metal label, Deathlike Silence Productions, and planned to release their next album soon, though the band never managed to release any material while signed to DSP. In the summer of 1992, a series of events were set in motion by the black metal inner circle. Samoth, along with various other black metallers, set out to burn down old churches in Norway. Also in 1992, Faust lived in Lillehammer, and in the newly constructed Olympic park a man named Magne Andreassen approached him and suggested that they take a walk in the nearby forest. Faust agreed, and, once in the forest, Faust claimed the man began to make strong sexual advances towards him. Faust then stabbed the man to death, kicking him in the head afterward to ensure that he was dead. [6] He was not convicted until two years later. The day after Faust committed the murder, he went with Euronymous of Mayhem and Varg Vikernes of Burzum to burn the Holmenkollen Chapel in Oslo. [7] In the summer of 1993, the band began working on their first full-length album. Emperor ceased wearing corpse paint; they stated that it was becoming a trend and losing its original significance and symbolism. In autumn of that year, the police began to investigate the murder of Euronymous of Mayhem, naming Varg Vikernes as a suspect; this investigation eventually led to the incarceration of Samoth for arson, and of Faust for the murder of Magne Andreassen. In 1994, Samoth was sentenced to 16 months in prison for burning the Skjold Church in Vindafjord, together with Varg Vikernes. [8] [9] The arson was committed during a pause in the recording of the Burzum EP Aske (‘Ashes’). In 1994, In the Nightside Eclipse was released, and earned Emperor widespread acclaim and a large fanbase. Final releases (1996–2001) [ edit] After Samoth's parole, the band was joined by Trym and Alver on drums and bass respectively, and at the end of 1996, Emperor entered the studio to record Anthems to the Welkin at Dusk. Anthems to the Welkin at Dusk won the 'album of the year' poll in many metal magazines around the world, including UK Terrorizer and US Metal Maniacs. [ citation needed] Bassist Alver soon left. Aside from their European shows, the band played in Mexico City on 24 July 1999. [ citation needed] Now continuing their career as a trio, with Ihsahn handling keyboards, vocals, guitars and bass, the band recorded their third album IX Equilibrium and toured Europe and North America. It was around 2000 when Samoth and Trym started to gravitate more towards death metal, while Ihsahn directed his musical exploration towards his side project, Peccatum. Thus, in 2001, Emperor decided to disband after releasing one final album, Prometheus: The Discipline of Fire & Demise, composed entirely by Ihsahn. Ihsahn later recalled that "When we announced the split up in 2001, we didn't think we would do anything more with Emperor ever decision was also based on the feeling that Emperor had a lot of integrity, and that if we were going to end it, we should end it while we still created great music. For us, the decision was made in the black metal spirit. Since Samoth and I pulled in different directions, we didn't see any point in continuing. The core of the band wasn't intact anymore". [10] Samoth echoed Ihsahn's position: "At that point, we both had other priorities that we wanted to pursue and we both felt that splitting up Emperor was the best thing to do. We really wanted to focus on other things, and felt it was the only right thing to do". [10] Hiatus and occasional live performances [ edit] Following the breakup, Samoth and Trym continued playing in the black/death metal outfit Zyklon, while Ihsahn concentrated on his family project Peccatum. Later Ihsahn announced a solo project, much in the vein of Prometheus: The Discipline of Fire & Demise and Peccatum, featuring drummer Asgeir Mickelson of Borknagar and Vintersorg. It has generated positive feedback in the black metal community. The band played a surprise three-song show in Oslo on 30 September 2005, at which they announced a series of full concerts to take place in California, New York City, and Europe in 2006. [ citation needed] As of February 2006, they were also scheduled to play at the Inferno festival in April and Germany's Wacken Open Air in August. Samoth was unable to take part in the US tour dates, as his conviction for the arson he committed in 1992 lengthened the process for his visa application, so Emperor performed without him. On 7 October 2006, Emperor performed at the under-18 Motstøy-festival in their home town of Notodden. The band had wanted to do an under-18 gig and a gig at their home town, so the festival fit perfectly. It was held at a small venue called StuA, and with only 450 tickets available, the concert quickly sold out. [ citation needed] On 28 October 2006, Emperor returned to the UK to play a gig at London's Astoria venue, where the band was warmly greeted by fans. In 2007, Emperor played a series of one-off shows in the United States and two festival gigs in France and Finland. [ citation needed] A Tablature Book based on their Scattered Ashes: A Decade of Emperial Wrath compilation album, containing thirteen Emperor tracks from their back catalogue, transcribed by Ihsahn with a foreword also by him, was released 31 October 2007 via Candlelight Records. Emperor's albums were also re-issued in a special box version with a bonus poster on 21 August 2007. Samoth announced on 23 October 2007 that Emperor had begun preparing a second official DVD release. [11] On 8 December 2008 it was revealed that this release will be called Live Inferno and come in the form of a double-disc live album and a live DVD, taken from their appearances at Inferno and Wacken metal festivals during their brief reunion. [12] It was released on 16 April 2009 in Europe and 21 April in North America. On 2 August 2013, it was announced that Emperor would be reuniting to headline the 25th anniversary Wacken Festival in 2014. [13] In the following months, they were announced as headliners for the 2014 editions of the Bloodstock Open Air and Hellfest festivals. In April 2014, they announced shows in Tokyo and Osaka for July with Trym playing drums due to Faust's visa issues. On 12 August 2016, it was announced that Emperor would reunite again in 2017 for a special set of performances to celebrate their 20th anniversary second studio album Anthems to the Welkin at Dusk. [14] on 27 December 2018, the band announced its presentation at the Mexico Metal Fest in Monterrey, Mexico in 2019. Emperor – De regreso a México Despite playing a handful of reunion shows, Ihsahn has stated that Emperor has no plans to record a new album. He was quoted as saying: "It's kind of a lose-lose thing. The whole point of black metal, people want something that is real and has integrity of what it is. At this point, none of us can see any reason to do that beyond what we already do. " [15] Controversy [ edit] Ihsahn once promoted arson in an interview: "Skjold Church was a large wooden church about 100 years old. The church contained an altar board and preaching chair from the 16th century. All this was said to be of historical, Christian value. So it was to be reduced to a pile of ashes. The material damages are set to be of 13 million Norwegian Kroners. The church was still being used by a large flock of blind followers. It became a victim for true Norwegian spirit on the 13th of September Anno 1992 during a stormy night. Witnessed by the moon, this symbolic act of anti-Christian war enlightened the night with pagan flames. Heathen barbarism is on the rise. We will bring back the forgotten past of strength, pride, and victory. " [16] However, Ihsahn, in a post-90s interview, attributed his ties to Satanism as being part of his adolescence. In 2014 Emperor attracted further controversy when the original drummer, Faust, joined them for live performances. Faust is a convicted murderer and caused some upset by being part of the shows. [17] Band members [ edit] Current lineup [ edit] Ihsahn – vocals, guitars, keyboards (1991–2001, 2005–2007, 2013–2014, 2016–present) Samoth – guitars (1992–2001, 2005–2007, 2013–2014, 2016–present), drums (1991–1992) Trym Torson – drums (1996–2001, 2005–2007, 2016–present) Former members [ edit] Håvard "Mortiis" Ellefsen – bass (1991–1992) Bård "Faust" Eithun – drums (1992–1994, 2013–2014) Terje "Tchort" Schei – bass (1993–1994) Jonas "Alver" Alver – bass (1995–1998) Live members [ edit] Vidar "Ildjarn" Vaaer – bass (1993) Steinar "Sverd" Johnsen – keyboards (1994–1995) Joachim "Charmand Grimloch" Rygg – keyboards (1996–1999) Jan Erik "Tyr" Torgersen – bass (1998–2001) Einar Solberg – keyboards (2005–2007, 2013–2014, 2016–2017) Tony "Secthdamon" Ingebrigtsen – bass (2005–2007, 2013–2014, 2016–Present) Jørgen Munkeby - keyboards (2018, 2019) Gerlioz - keyboards (2018) Ole Vistnes - bass (2019) Timeline [ edit] Discography [ edit] Studio albums In the Nightside Eclipse (1994) Anthems to the Welkin at Dusk (1997) IX Equilibrium (1999) Prometheus: The Discipline of Fire & Demise (2001) References [ edit] ^ "Prometheus: The Discipline of Fire & Demise - Emperor - Songs, Reviews, Credits - AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 15 November 2019. ^ Steve Huey. "In the Nightside Eclipse – Emperor | Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". Retrieved 28 February 2014. ^ Peter Bickel. "Emperor » Nordische Musik".. Retrieved 28 February 2014. ^ Extreme Metal II – Joel McIver – Google Boeken.. Retrieved 28 February 2014. ^ Brad Angle (14 August 2009). "Emperor: Symphony of Destruction".. Archived from the original on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2013. ^ "Faust Interview".. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2014. ^ Michael Moynihan, Didrik Søderlind: Lords of Chaos: The Bloody Rise of the Satanic Metal Underground, First Edition, Venice, CA: Feral House 1998, p. 94f. ^ Hartmann, Graham. "Top 10 Worst Crimes Committed by Black Metal Musicians".. Retrieved 8 January 2015. ^ "Satan's Cheerleaders". Spin Magazine. February 1996. p. 66. ^ a b Kvam, Martin (December 2005). "MMV Equilibrium". Terrorizer. 138: 8–12. ^ "ZYKLON 'Taking A Break', EMPEROR DVD On The Way".. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011. ^ "News > EMPEROR's Live Inferno Confirmed For Worldwide Release".. Retrieved 29 October 2011. ^ "Emperor To Reunite For Wacken Open Air – in Metal News".. Retrieved 28 February 2014. ^ DiVita, Joe (13 August 2016). "Emperor to Reunite in 2017 for 20th Anniversary of 'Anthems to the Welkin at Dusk ' ". Loudwire. Retrieved 14 August 2016. ^ "IHSAHN Rules Out New EMPEROR Album: 'What Could We Possibly Do? It's Kind Of A Lose-Lose Thing ' ".. 30 June 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019. ^ "Ihshan interview in EsoTerra #6 1995".. Retrieved 13 September 2015. ^ "Why Is The Convicted Murderer Of A Gay Man Being Celebrated At A Major Metal Festival? ".. External links [ edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Emperor. Official website.

Emperor watch full length episodes. English [ edit] Alternative forms [ edit] emperour ( obsolete) Etymology [ edit] From Middle English emperour, borrowed from Anglo-Norman emperour and Old French empereor (Modern French empereur), from Latin imperātor ( “ emperor; commander ”), from imperāre ( “ to command ”). Doublet of imperator. Pronunciation [ edit] ( Received Pronunciation) IPA ( key): /ˈɛmpəɹə/, /ˈɛmpɹə/ ( General American) IPA ( key): /ˈɛmpəɹɚ/, /ˈɛmpɹɚ/ ( General New Zealand) IPA ( key): /ˈempɘɹɘ/, /ˈempɹɘ/ Noun [ edit] emperor ( plural emperors) The male monarch or ruler of an empire. (Can we date this quote by Sri Ramana Maharishi and provide title, author's full name, and other details? ) Even an emperor is no match for a man with no wants. Any monarch ruling an empire, irrespective of gender, with "empress" contrasting to mean when consort to emperor 1994 Het Spinhuis, Transactions: Essays in Honor of Jeremy F. Boissevain In 690 Wu usurped the throne and became Emperor herself, which proved a unique event in the history of China. 2002 The Heritage of World Civilizations: To 1700 page 226 After his death in 683 she ruled for seven years as regent and then, deposing her son, became emperor herself, the only woman in Chinese history to hold the title. 2008 Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe: Society in Transformation page 211 Empress, imperial regent, and even emperor herself (r. 797–802), Irene was an important and powerful figure at the Byzantine court in the late eighth and early ninth century. 2013 Voyages in World History page 213 Originally the wife of the emperor, she engineered the imperial succession so that she could serve first as regent to a boy emperor and then as emperor herself. 2016, Commander Pakydus, "Sindbad & the 7 Galaxies" Where is Sindbad? I have a summons for him direct from the galactic emperor herself. He is to be brought here immediately to give an explanation for his recent actions. ( political theory) Specifically, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire; the world-monarch. The Investiture Controversy was a conflict between the Emperor and the Pope. The fourth trump or major arcana card of the tarot deck. A large, relatively valuable marble in children's games. 2001, Paul Webley, The economic psychology of everyday life, page 39: But marbles are not only used to play games: they are also traded. In this market, the value of the different kinds of marbles (oilies, emperors, etc. ) is determined by local supply and demand and not by the price of the marbles [ …] Any fish of the family Lethrinidae. ( entomology) Any various butterflies of the subfamily Charaxinae. Usage notes [ edit] An emperor is generally addressed as His Imperial Majesty. Hyponyms [ edit] barracks emperor Derived terms [ edit] [ edit] Translations [ edit] ruler of an empire Albanian: perandor   (sq)   m Arabic: قَيْصَر ‎  m ( qayṣar), إِمْبْرَاطُور ‎  m ( ʾimbrāṭūr) Armenian: կայսր   (hy) ( kaysr) Old Armenian: կայսր ( kaysr), կեսար ( kesar) Aromanian: ampirat   m Asturian: emperador   m Azerbaijani: imperator Belarusian: імпера́тар   m ( impjerátar), цар   m ( car) ( tsar) Bengali: সম্রাট ( sômraṭ) Breton: impalaer   (br) Bulgarian: импера́тор   (bg)   m ( imperátor), цар   (bg)   m ( car) ( tsar) Burmese: ဧကရာဇ်   (my) () Catalan: emperador   (ca)   m Chinese: Cantonese: 皇帝 ( wong 4 dai 3) Dungan: хуонди ( huondi), хуоншон ( huonšon) Mandarin: 皇帝   (zh) ( huángdì), 帝王   (zh) ( dìwáng), 天皇   (zh) ( tiānhuáng) ( of Japan), 皇上   (zh) ( huángshang) Czech: císař   (cs)   m Danish: kejser   (da)   c Dutch: keizer   (nl)   m Esperanto: imperiestro Estonian: keiser   (et), imperaator Extremaduran: emperaol   m Finnish: keisari   (fi) French: empereur   (fr)   m Friulian: imperadôr   m Galician: emperador   m Georgian: იმპერატორი ( imṗeraṭori) German: Kaiser   (de)   m, Imperator   (de)   m Greek: αυτοκράτορας   (el)   m ( aftokrátoras) Ancient: αὐτοκράτωρ   m ( autokrátōr), καῖσαρ   m ( kaîsar), αὐτάναξ   m ( autánax) Hebrew: קיסר קֵיסָר ‎   (he)   m ( kesár, keysár) Hindi: सम्राट   m ( samrāṭ) Hungarian: császár   (hu) Icelandic: keisari   (is)   m Ido: cezaro   (io), imperiestro   (io) Indonesian: kaisar   (id), maharaja   (id) Interlingua: imperator Irish: impire   m Italian: imperatore   (it)   m Japanese: 皇帝   (ja) ( こうてい, kōtei) ( emperor in general), 帝王   (ja) ( ていおう, teiō) ( general term for emperor or monarch), 天皇   (ja) ( てんのう, tennō) ( emperor of Japan) Kazakh: император ( ïmperator) Khmer: អធិរាជ   (km) ( ʾaʾthiriəc), រាជាធិរាជ ( riəciə thiriəc), សម្រាជ   (km) ( sɑmraac) Korean: 황제   (ko) ( hwangje), 천황   (ko) ( cheonhwang) (of Japan) Kurdish: Kurmanji: emperator   (ku), qeyser   (ku) Kyrgyz: император   (ky) ( imperator) Lao: ຈັກກະພັດ ( chak ka phat), ຈັກກະວັດ ( chak ka wat), ນໍຣິນ ( nǭ rin), ນໍລິນ ( nǭ lin), ຣາເຊນ ( rā sēn) Latin: imperātor   (la)   m Latvian: imperators   m, ķeizars   m Lithuanian: imperatorius   m, ciesorius   m Low German: German Low German: Kaiser Luxembourgish: Keeser   m Macedonian: импера́тор   m ( imperátor), цар   m ( car) ( tsar) Malay: kaisar, maharaja, khakan Malayalam: സാമ്രാട്ട് ( sāmrāṭṭŭ) Mandinka: mansa Manx: ard-ree   m Maori: emepara, epara Marathi: सम्राट   m ( samrāṭ) Middle English: emperour Mongolian: эзэн хаан ( ezen haan) Norman: empéreu   m ( Jersey) Norwegian: Bokmål: keiser   (no)   m Nynorsk: keisar   m Occitan: emperador   (oc)   m Old Occitan: emperador Old English: cāsere   m Persian: امپراطور ‎   (fa) ( emperâtor) Polish: imperator   (pl)   m, cesarz   (pl)   m Portuguese: imperador   (pt)   m Punjabi: ਸਮਰਾਟ   (pa) ( samrāṭ) Quechua: qhapaq Romanian: împărat   (ro)   m Romansch: imperatur   m, imperataur   m, imperatour   m, caiser   m Russian: импера́тор   (ru)   m ( imperátor), царь   (ru)   m ( carʹ) ( tsar) Sanskrit: अधिराज   (sa)   m ( adhirāja), सम्राज्   (sa)   m ( samrāj) Scottish Gaelic: ìmpire   m Serbo-Croatian: Cyrillic: ца̏р   m, импѐра̄тор   m, це̏са̄р   m Latin: cȁr   (sh)   m, impèrātor   (sh)   m, cȅsār   (sh)   m Sicilian: mpiraturi Slovak: cisár   (sk)   m, cár   (sk)   m ( of Russia, Bulgaria) Slovene: cêsar   (sl)   m, imperátor   m Sorbian: Lower Sorbian: kejžor   m Upper Sorbian: kejžor   m Spanish: emperador   (es)   m Swahili: kaisari Swedish: kejsare   (sv)   c Tagalog: baginda, emperador   (tl) Tajik: император ( imperator) Telugu: చక్రవర్తి   (te) ( cakravarti) Thai: จักรพรรดิ ( jàk-grà-pát), ฮ่องเต้ ( hɔ̂ng-dtêe) ( emperor of China) Turkish: imparator   (tr), ilhan   (tr) Turkmen: imperator Ukrainian: імпера́тор   m ( imperátor), цар   (uk)   m ( car) ( tsar) Urdu: سمراٹ ‎  m ( samrāṭ) Uzbek: imperator   (uz) Venetian: inperadore   m, inperador   m Vietnamese: hoàng đế   (vi), thiên hoàng ( of Japan) Vilamovian: kazer   m Walloon: impreur   (wa)   m Welsh: ymerawdwr   m Yiddish: קייסער ‎  m ( keyser), אימפּעראַטאָר ‎  m ( imperator) fourth trump or major arcana card Anagrams [ edit] per orem.

😭❤❤❤❤ God his music got me through so much as a kid in middle school im about to be an adult. Thank you Brendon♡♡♡♡.

Emperor watch full length 2017

There was never a moment in this where I wasn't absolutely blown away. So many golden scenes and great lines. Alfabusa, through your tweets you showed you were pretty frustrated with how long this took to get out and everyone hounding you about the release, but I want you to know that you and the whole cast have done really amazing work and me and my friends who got into 40k through TTS all truly appreciate it. Emperor Watch Full lengths. Best emperor.666beersandpaws.

So ah, does anyone else consider the Disney Trilogy to be non cannon. I mean it was so bad i can't accept it, all the game's and fan theories wasted. What was the point, i felt like a fool the whole way through not having a clue about anything. From an ex Star Wars Fanatic. What was the point? the Palpatine saga? Only at the end do we Understand.


Palpatine: I have been every voice Snoke: you have ever heard Vader: inside your head Admiral Ackbar: it's a TRAP. Vader : Inside your head Greedo: MACLUNKEY. Emperor watch full length online.


@DarthKrattus no man this is a tribute channel! as its said in the description of the channel. Really solid performance. Emperor's sound is so thick and soothing at times. FANDOM Games Movies TV Video Wikis Explore Wikis Community Central Start a Wiki Search Sign In Don't have an account? Register Wookieepedia, the Star Wars Wiki 155, 306 Pages Add new page The Rise of Skywalker Resistance and Allies Rey Poe Dameron Finn Lando Calrissian Luke Skywalker Leia Organa Chewbacca Rose Tico Zorii Bliss Jannah First Order and Allies Kylo Ren Palpatine Armitage Hux Pryde Droids C-3PO R2-D2 BB-8 D-O Locations Ajan Kloss Kijimi Kef Bir Pasaana Exegol Death Star II Organizations First Order Resistance Final Order Jedi Order Knights of Ren Miscellaneous The Force Millennium Falcon Orbak Treadspeeder Wayfinder Star Wars Star Wars saga The Phantom Menace Attack of the Clones Revenge of the Sith A New Hope The Empire Strikes Back Return of the Jedi The Force Awakens The Last Jedi Standalone films and television Solo Rogue One The Clone Wars Rebels The Mandalorian Untitled Cassian Andor television series Untitled Obi-Wan Kenobi television series Prequel Trilogy Characters Anakin Skywalker Obi-Wan Kenobi Padmé Amidala Qui-Gon Jinn Mace Windu Jar-Jar Binks Darth Maul Dooku Grievous Original Trilogy Characters Han Solo Wilhuff Tarkin Mon Mothma Yoda Sequel Trilogy Characters Phasma Snoke Maz Kanata Other Characters Jyn Erso Cassian Jeron Andor Orson Callan Krennic Tobias Beckett Qi'ra Dryden Vos Ahsoka Tano Kanan Jarrus Ezra Bridger Thrawn Alliance to Restore the Republic Galactic Empire Galactic Republic Confederacy of Independent Systems New Republic Black Sun Crimson Dawn Navigation Recent changes Articles Content A-Z Random page Browse articles by category Status Articles Featured articles Featured article nominations Good articles Good article nominations Comprehensive articles Comprehensive article nominations How to nominate an article Help Getting started on Wookieepedia Uploading and using images Make test edits Report vandalism Frequently asked questions Ways to help Wookieepedia How Wookieepedia treats Canon and Legends Community About Wookieepedia Join Wookieepedia What Wookieepedia is not Star Wars VIP interviews Wookieepedia in other languages Site policies Attribution Copyrights Images Layout Guide Manual of Style Naming Policy Policy and consensus updates Spoilers Sourcing Forums Senate Hall Knowledge Bank Consensus track Administrators' noticeboard Wookieepedian of the Month Contests and giveaways WookieeProjects The Old Republic Aliens Video Games Contact Administration Chat Explore Wiki Activity Videos Discuss in: Canon articles, Stub, Incomplete lists, and 3 more Political titles Royalty Titles of nobility Edit Edit source History Talk (0) Share The title of emperor ( feminine empress) was used by the ruler of a government, such as an empire. The Atrisian Emperors of the Atrisian Empire were a type of emperor, [1] Leeya of the Regency Worlds utilized the title of empress. [2] This article is a stub. You can help Wookieepedia by expanding it. Contents [ show] Appearances Edit This list is incomplete. You can help Wookieepedia by expanding it. " Vengeful Waves "— Myths & Fables (Appears in flashback(s)) Sources Edit Star Wars: The Last Jedi: The Visual Dictionary (First mentioned) Dawn of Rebellion Notes and references Edit ↑ 1. 0 1. 1 1. 2 Star Wars: The Last Jedi: The Visual Dictionary ↑ 2. 0 2. 1 2. 2 2. 3 Dawn of Rebellion ↑ " Vengeful Waves "— Myths & Fables External links Edit Emperor on Wikipedia In other languages Español Français Retrieved from " " Categories: Canon articles Stub Incomplete lists Political titles Royalty Titles of nobility Hidden category: Canon articles with Legends counterparts Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted. Fandom may earn an affiliate commission on sales made from links on this page. Stream the best stories. Start Your Free Trial Get Disney+ Try Now JokeyPsych EndgameHonest GalaxyQuest.

5:52 pegilah ke tukang jait jooo. Emperor uk Your browser doesn't support HTML5 audio / ˈem. p ə r. ə r / us / ˈem. pɚ. ɚ / Thesaurus: synonyms and related words (Definition of emperor from the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary & Thesaurus © Cambridge University Press) Examples from literature Emperor Qin was worried about the kingdoms to the north of China, especially Mongolia.   Emperor Shah Jahan loved his wife very much.   He became emperor in 27 BCE.   In 1922, the government changed and there were no more emperors.   It is difficult to be sure about things that happened so long ago, but there are many stories of crazy things that emperors did.   Later, between 1368 and 1644, the Ming emperors made the wall longer.   Now the soldiers themselves live the life of emperors.   People in every part of the Roman Empire knew what the emperor looked like.   Qin was emperor for only 12 years.   Some say the doctors made a mistake, but some believe they wanted to kill the emperor.   The Romans put a picture of the emperor on their coins.   The emperor wanted to live for many thousands of years.   The emperor was so sad that he wanted to build a beautiful temple for her.   The first Roman emperor was a man called Octavius Augustus.   The leader was called an emperor or an empress.   There were about 130 emperors in the history of the empire.   An emperor does not like to be reminded of a very humble past, and he is liable also to fear the rivalry of men who formerly were his equals.   But it is very early yet, and an hour may elapse before the emperor makes his appearance.   For Napoleon was no longer emperor, and I would not serve the king who succeeded him.   He was a great man, but not pre-eminently a great emperor.   Whether he was a pretender or imagined that he was an emperor no one knew or seemed to care. emperor | American Dictionary emperor us / ˈem·pər·ər / (Definition of emperor from the Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary © Cambridge University Press) Examples of emperor emperor More often than not, damage-control treatment was applied to documents that contained the material detrimental to the legitimacy of the emperor or the regime. Nowhere, however, did he actually comment upon their legality or illegality, let alone pronouncing a verdict on the very faith of the emperor. These examples are from the Cambridge English Corpus and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors. More examples Fewer examples The emperor entertained them and raised the issue of the marble. Behind the smoke and mirrors of the state's periodic mobilisations of schools, bureaucrats and unions the affective power of the ' official ' last emperor proved ambiguous. This also can be seen as a simplification of the procedures for memorializing the emperor and imperial sanction. The intrinsic strength of the language, combined with the emperor's decision, prepared the ground for forging the links between the court and the remote village. He discovered he could extend his own influence by fanning the ecclesiastics' fears that the emperor was no longer the best guarantor of their autonomy. He describes a contentious and secretive process of the bottom+up (or middle+up) drafting of orders that eventually reach the emperor for approval. The emperor also sponsored large-scale scholarly projects to map the region, classify its peoples and write its definitive history. Instead, they were differentiated as "law" by the emperor, and as "contracts/agreements" by commoners. They went to war cheerfully, suppressing thoughts of family and home, and sought to achieve glory for the emperor or the nation on the battlefield. We counted more than 11, 000 emperor penguins there during ship and aerial surveys. Like the emperor and his nobility in general, this class also cherished the universal human values and visions. In the past it was followed by the emperor and the nobility, by the rich and by intellectuals such as the literati. This was a source of strife since the emperor was continually struggling to regain lost authority. Translations of emperor {{setText}} in Chinese (Traditional) in Japanese in Turkish in French in Catalan in Arabic in Czech in Danish in Indonesian in Thai in Vietnamese in Polish in Malay in German in Norwegian in Korean in Portuguese in Chinese (Simplified) in Italian in Russian in Spanish {{{translatePanelDefaultEntry. entryLeft}}} See more จักรพรรดิ์… Need a translator? Get a quick, free translation!

The Big Bang was not a secular theory. It was published as a theory of the primeval atom by Msgr. Georges Lemaitres,a Catholic priest, in 1927. Emperor, feminine empress, title designating the sovereigns of the ancient Roman Empire and, by derivation, various later European rulers; it is also applied loosely to certain non-European monarchs. Read More on This Topic ancient Rome: Cult of the emperors Among the institutions most important in softening the edges of regional differences was the cult of the emperors. In one sense, it originated… In republican Rome ( c. 509–27 bc), imperator denoted a victorious general, so named by his troops or by the Senate. Under the empire (after 27 bc), it was regularly adopted by the ruler as a forename and gradually came to apply to his office. In medieval times, Charlemagne, king of the Franks and of the Lombards, was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III in Rome on Christmas Day, 800. Thenceforward until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 there were two emperors in the Christian world, the Byzantine and the Western. The term “Holy Roman emperor” is now generally used, for convenience, to designate the Western sovereigns, though the title was at first simply “emperor” ( imperator; the German form kaiser being derived from the Roman caesar), then “august emperor, ” then, from 971, “Roman emperor. ” The addition of “Holy” to the designation of the emperor, in historical writing, follows from its having been added to that of the empire ( sacrum imperium, 1157). The dissolution of Frankish Europe into separate kingdoms led eventually to the imperial title’s passing in 962 to the East Frankish or German king Otto I, who was also king of Italy (the kingdom of Burgundy was further acquired by Conrad II in 1032). Thenceforward to 1806, though not all German kings were emperors (crowned by the pope), there were no emperors who were not German kings, so that election to the German kingship came to be de facto necessary for attainment of the imperial title—with the final result that from 1508 to 1806 the style “emperor elected” or, more briefly, “emperor” was given to the German king in anticipation of his coronation by the pope (only one such coronation, that of Charles V in 1530, actually took place in the period). Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today Outside the Frankish and German sphere of influence the title emperor was sometimes assumed by princes supreme over more than one kingdom: thus Sancho III the Great of Navarre styled himself “emperor of Spain” on his annexation of Léon (1034); Alfonso VI of Léon and Castile called himself “emperor of the Two Religions, ” to show his supremacy over Christians and Muslims alike; and Alfonso VII took the title “emperor of all Spain” (1135). The Russian tsar Peter I the Great assumed the title imperator on Oct. 22, 1721. From that point on male rulers were conventionally called tsar, whereas female rulers were always called empress; both males and females held both titles, i. e., tsar (or tsaritsa) and imperator (or imperatritsa). After the French Revolution had destroyed the kingdom of France, Napoleon Bonaparte in 1804, having been anointed by Pope Pius VII, crowned himself emperor of the French as Napoleon I. His claim to be the successor not of Louis XIV but of Charlemagne, together with his organization of the Confederation of the Rhine in Germany, was a threat to the Holy Roman Empire of the Habsburg dynasty. Seeing this, Francis II, to retain an imperial title, took that of “hereditary emperor of Austria ” before he dissolved the old empire in 1806. His successors retained it until 1918. Napoleon III was emperor of the French from 1852 until his deposition in 1870–71 (the French Second Empire). Between 1871 and 1918 the kings of Prussia —William I, Frederick III, and William II— were German emperors, or kaisers. Victoria of Great Britain took the title empress of India in 1876, but her great-grandson George VI renounced the imperial title when India became independent. In the Western Hemisphere Jean-Jacques Dessalines was emperor of Haiti from 1804 to 1806; princes of the house of Bragança were emperors of Brazil from 1822 to 1889; Agustín de Iturbide and the Austrian archduke Maximilian were emperors of Mexico from 1822 to 1823 and from 1864 to 1867, respectively. The title emperor also is generally and loosely used as the English designation for the sovereigns of Ethiopia and of Japan, for the Mogul rulers of India, for the former sovereigns of China, for the Inca rulers of Peru, and for the Aztec rulers of Mexico. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Among the institutions most important in softening the edges of regional differences was the cult of the emperors. In one sense, it originated in the 4th century bc, when Alexander the Great first received veneration by titles and symbols and forms of address as… history of Europe: The empire …house was also Holy Roman emperor. He directly ruled the family lands, comprising different parts of Austria stretching from Alpine valleys to the Danubian plain, which were mainly Roman Catholic and German; Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, which were mainly Slavic in race and language; a fraction of Hungary after the… history of Europe: Late antiquity: the reconfiguration of the Roman world In the 3rd century the emperor, who was first called princeps (“first citizen”) and then dominus (“lord”), became divus (“divine”). The powerful religious connotations of the imperial office were adopted even by usurpers of the imperial throne, backed by their armies, who then ruled autocratically at the head of a….

Emperor watch full length movie. Still have this clip on vhs since 97. Emperor watch full length movies. Emperor watch full length episode. Vader: Inside your head Anakin: Is it possible to learn this power. Emperor watch full length free. 25 Years. Gonna spin this tonight :D. The fact that the country with the most advanced technology of the world has a dynasty in the world oldest. Emperor watch full length hd. 🇧🇪King and Queen of Belgium 🇱🇺Grand Duke of Luxembourg. 33:00 ? pls. Emperor Watch full length.

This is a list including all rulers who had carried the title of emperor through history. Emperors of traditional empires [ edit] Ancient empires [ edit] Persian Empire (559 BC–330 BC)—see List of kings of Persia Hellenistic Empire (331 BC–301 BC)—see Alexander the Great and Diadochi Mauryan Empire (321 BC–185 BC)—see Mauryan dynasty China Empire (221 BC–1911)—see Table of Chinese monarchs Funan (68–550)—see List of Kings of Cambodia Roman Empire (27 BC–476)—see List of Roman Emperors Ethiopia (Empire ca. 3rd century–1975)—see Emperor of Ethiopia, Rulers and heads of state of Ethiopia, and Kings of Axum Middle Ages [ edit] Western and Byzantine traditions [ edit] Byzantine Empire (395–1453)—see List of Byzantine Emperors —and its rival & split-offs, Latin Empire of Constantinople (1204–1261, with the title of (Latin) "Emperor of Constantinople" continuing to 1383) Empire of Nicaea (1204–1261)—"Byzantine Empire" in exile during the rule of the "Latin Empire" over Constantinople. Empire of Trebizond (1204–1461)—Another split of the "Byzantine Empire" Empire of Thessalonica (1224–1242)—Offshoot of the Despotate of Epirus, reduced to vassal status of other powers after 1230 Ottoman Empire (1299–1922)—see Ottoman dynasty Carolingian Empire (800–843, 884–888) Holy Roman Empire (891–1806)—see List of Holy Roman Emperors West Francia (875–877, 881–887)–see List of French monarchs Bulgaria ( Empire 913–1422)—see List of Bulgarian monarchs Serbia ( Empire 1345–1371)—see Emperor of Serbia Muscovy (Empire 1547–1721)—see List of Russian rulers —continued in Imperial Russia from 1721 (see below) Asian [ edit] Japan (monarchs known as tenno from 7th century CE)—see Emperor of Japan and List of Emperors of Japan Korean Empire (1897–1910)—see Emperor of Korea Chola Empire (300–1279)—see List of Tamil monarchs Chenla (550–802)—see List of Kings of Cambodia The first ruler of Vietnam to take the title of Emperor (Hoang De) was the founder of the Dinh Dynasty, Dinh Bo Linh, in the year AD 966—see List of Vietnamese dynasties Khmer Empire (802–1431)—see List of Kings of Cambodia Mongol Empire (1206–1634)—see List of Mongol Khans Persian Empire ( Iran) (1501–1979)—see List of kings of Persia Mughal Empire (1526–1857)—see List of Mughal emperors Durrani Empire (1747–1823) Talpur dynasty (1783–1843) Americas [ edit] Aztec Empire (1375–1521)—see Hueyi Tlatoani Inca Empire (1438–1533)—see Sapa Inca Pre-modern Empire [ edit] Spanish Empire was the first world-wide empire in history, (1492–1898) with its maximum expansion between 1520 and 1700 reaching 31 million square kilometers Austrian Empire, 1804–1867 and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, 1867–1918 as Emperor of Austria (both under the Habsburgs) British Empire de jure 1877–1947 India (under the British Raj with British Monarch as Emperor of India, 1876–1947) Third Bulgarian Tsardom (internationally equivalent to a kingdom, 1908–1946)—see list of Bulgarian monarchs Empire of Brazil ( Pedro I, 1822–1831 and Pedro II, 1831–1889)—see Brazilian imperial family France: (under the Bonapartes, 1804–1814, 1815; 1852–1870)—see Emperor of the French First French Empire ( Napoleon I, 1804–1814, 1815) Second French Empire ( Napoleon III, 1852–1870) German Empire (under the Hohenzollern dynasty as German Emperors, 1871–1918) Russian Empire (under the Romanovs, 1721–1917)—see list of Russian rulers Emperors of short-lived "empires" [ edit] Emperor Jacques I of the Empire of Haiti (1804–1806) Emperor Augustine of the first Mexican Empire (1822–1823) Emperor Faustin I of the Empire of Haiti (1849–1859) Emperor Maximilian of the second Mexican Empire (1864–1867) Emperor Sylvain I of the Empire of Haiti (1868–1870, not confirmed [1]) Emperors Sunjong and Gojong of the Korean Empire (1897–1910) The Hongxian Emperor of the Empire of China (1915–1916) Emperor Puyi of the Empire of Manchuria (1934–1945) Emperor Bảo Đại of the Empire of Vietnam (1945) Emperor Bokassa I of the Central African Empire (1976–1979) Self-proclaimed "emperors" [ edit] See also Self-proclaimed monarchy and micronation Simeon Uroš, "Emperor of Serbs and Greeks" (held by Uroš V), in reality Despot of Epirus and Thessaly (1359–1369) John Uroš, "Emperor of Serbs and Greeks", in reality Despot of Thessaly (1369–1373) Jovan Nenad, "Emperor of Serbs" (1526–1527) Paul of Smederevo, "Serb Emperor" (1560s) Joshua Abraham Norton “Emperor of the United States of America” (1858–1889) Fictional emperors [ edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. ( January 2014) Galactic Empire (Isaac Asimov) Emperor Sheev Palpatine of the First Galactic Empire (19BBY-4ABY) Emperor Karl Franz, of the Empire of the Warhammer Fantasy franchise See Category of fictional emperors and empresses.

Part of a series on European imperial, royal, noble, gentry and chivalric ranks in Western culture Emperor / Empress / King-Emperor / Queen-Empress / Kaiser / Tsar High king / High queen / Great king / Great queen King / Queen Archduke / Archduchess / Tsesarevich Grand prince / Grand princess Grand duke / Grand duchess Prince-elector / Prince / Princess / Crown prince / Crown princess / Foreign prince / Prince du sang / Infante / Infanta / Dauphin / Dauphine / Królewicz / Królewna / Jarl Duke / Duchess / Herzog / Knyaz / Princely count Sovereign prince / Sovereign princess / Fürst / Fürstin / Boyar Marquess / Marquis / Marchioness  / Margrave  / Landgrave / Marcher Lord / Count palatine Count / Countess  / Earl / Graf / Châtelain / Castellan / Burgrave Viscount / Viscountess  / Vidame Baron / Baroness / Freiherr / Advocatus / Lord of Parliament / Thane / Lenderman Baronet / Baronetess / Scottish Feudal Baron / Scottish Feudal Baroness / Ritter / Imperial Knight Eques / Knight / Chevalier / Ridder / Lady / Dame / Edelfrei / Seigneur / Lord Gentleman / Gentry / Esquire / Laird / Edler / Jonkheer / Junker / Younger / Maid Ministerialis v t e An emperor (from Latin: imperator, via Old French: empereor) [1] is a monarch, and usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife ( empress consort), mother ( empress dowager), or a woman who rules in her own right ( empress regnant). Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe, the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe. The Emperor of Japan is the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as "Emperor". [2] Both emperors and kings are monarchs, but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. Inasmuch as there is a strict definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any other ruler and typically rules over more than one nation. Therefore a king might be obliged to pay tribute to another ruler, [3] or be restrained in his actions in some unequal fashion, but an emperor should in theory be completely free of such restraints. However, monarchs heading empires have not always used the title in all contexts—the British sovereign did not assume the title Empress of the British Empire even during the incorporation of India, though she was declared Empress of India. In Western Europe, the title of Emperor was used exclusively by the Holy Roman Emperor, whose imperial authority was derived from the concept of translatio imperii, i. e. they claimed succession to the authority of the Western Roman Emperors, thus linking themselves to Roman institutions and traditions as part of state ideology. Although initially ruling much of Central Europe and northern Italy, by the 19th century the Emperor exercised little power beyond the German-speaking states. Although technically an elective title, by the late 16th century the imperial title had in practice come to be inherited by the Habsburg Archdukes of Austria and following the Thirty Years' War their control over the states (outside the Habsburg Monarchy, i. Austria, Bohemia and various territories outside the empire) had become nearly non-existent. However, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of the French in 1804 and was shortly followed by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who declared himself Emperor of Austria in the same year. The position of Holy Roman Emperor nonetheless continued until Francis II abdicated that position in 1806. In Eastern Europe, the monarchs of Russia also used translatio imperii to wield imperial authority as successors to the Eastern Roman Empire. Their status was officially recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1514, although not officially used by the Russian monarchs until 1547. However, the Russian emperors are better known by their Russian-language title of Tsar even after Peter the Great adopted the title of Emperor of All Russia in 1721. Historians have liberally used emperor and empire anachronistically and out of its Roman and European context to describe any large state from the past or the present. Such pre-Roman titles as Great King or King of Kings, used by the Kings of Persia and others, are often considered as the equivalent. Sometimes this reference has even extended to non-monarchically ruled states and their spheres of influence such as the Athenian Empire of the late 5th century BC, the Angevin Empire of the Plantagenets and the Soviet and American "empires" of the Cold War era. However, such "empires" did not need to be headed by an "emperor". Empire became identified instead with vast territorial holdings rather than the title of its ruler by the mid-18th century. For purposes of protocol, emperors were once given precedence over kings in international diplomatic relations, but currently precedence amongst heads of state who are sovereigns—whether they be kings, queens, emperors, empresses, princes, princesses and to a lesser degree presidents—is determined by the duration of time that each one has been continuously in office. Outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their native languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era. Roman tradition [ edit] In the Roman tradition a large variety in the meaning and importance of the imperial form of monarchy developed: in intention it was always the highest office, but it could as well fall down to a redundant title for nobility that had never been near to the "Empire" they were supposed to be reigning. Also the name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below. The importance and meaning of coronation ceremonies and regalia also varied within the tradition: for instance Holy Roman Emperors could only be crowned emperor by the Pope, which meant the coronation ceremony usually took place in Rome, often several years after these emperors had ascended to the throne (as "king") in their home country. The first Latin Emperors of Constantinople on the other hand had to be present in the newly conquered capital of their empire, because that was the only place where they could be granted to become emperor. Early Roman Emperors avoided any type of ceremony or regalia different from what was already usual for republican offices in the Roman Republic: the most intrusive change had been changing the color of their robe to purple. Later new symbols of worldly and/or spiritual power, like the orb, became an essential part of the imperial accessories. Rules for indicating successors also varied: there was a tendency towards male inheritance of the supreme office, but as well election by noblemen, as ruling empresses are known (for empires not too strictly under salic law). Ruling monarchs could additionally steer the succession by adoption, as often occurred in the two first centuries of Imperial Rome. Of course, intrigue, murder and military force could also mingle in for appointing successors; the Roman imperial tradition made no exception to other monarchical traditions in this respect. Probably the epoch best known for this part of the imperial tradition is Rome's third century rule. Roman Empire and Byzantine emperors [ edit] Classical Antiquity [ edit] When Republican Rome turned into a de facto monarchy in the second half of the 1st century BC, at first there was no name for the title of the new type of monarch. Ancient Romans abhorred the name Rex ("king"), and it was critical to the political order to maintain the forms and pretenses of republican rule. Julius Caesar had been Dictator, an acknowledged and traditional office in Republican Rome. Caesar was not the first to hold it, but following his assassination the term was abhorred in Rome [ citation needed]. Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire. Augustus, considered the first Roman emperor, established his hegemony by collecting on himself offices, titles, and honours of Republican Rome that had traditionally been distributed to different people, concentrating what had been distributed power in one man. One of these offices was princeps senatus, ("first man of the Senate") and became changed into Augustus' chief honorific, princeps civitatis ("first citizen") from which the modern English word and title prince is descended. The first period of the Roman Empire, from 27 BC – AD 284, is called the principate for this reason. However, it was the informal descriptive of Imperator ("commander") that became the title increasingly favored by his successors. Previously bestowed on high officials and military commanders who had imperium, Augustus reserved it exclusively to himself as the ultimate holder of all imperium. ( Imperium is Latin for the authority to command, one of a various types of authority delineated in Roman political thought. ) Beginning with Augustus, Imperator appeared in the title of all Roman monarchs through the extinction of the Empire in 1453. After the reign of Augustus' immediate successor Tiberius, being proclaimed imperator was transformed into the act of accession to the head of state. Other honorifics used by the Roman Emperors have also come to be synonyms for Emperor: Caesar (as, for example, in Suetonius ' Twelve Caesars). This tradition continued in many languages: in German it became " Kaiser "; in certain Slavic languages it became " Tsar "; in Hungarian it became " Császár ", and several more variants. The name derived from Julius Caesar 's cognomen "Caesar": this cognomen was adopted by all Roman emperors, exclusively by the ruling monarch after the Julio-Claudian dynasty had died out. In this tradition Julius Caesar is sometimes described as the first Caesar/emperor (following Suetonius). This is one of the most enduring titles, Caesar and its transliterations appeared in every year from the time of Caesar Augustus to Tsar Symeon II of Bulgaria 's removal from the throne in 1946. Augustus was the honorific first bestowed on Emperor Augustus: after him all Roman emperors added it to their name. Although it had a high symbolical value, something like "elevated" or "sublime", it was generally not used to indicate the office of Emperor itself. Exceptions include the title of the Augustan History, a semi-historical collection of Emperors' biographies of the 2nd and 3rd century. Augustus had (by his last will) granted the feminine form of this honorific ( Augusta) to his wife. Since there was no "title" of Empress(-consort) whatsoever, women of the reigning dynasty sought to be granted this honorific, as the highest attainable goal. Few were however granted the title, and certainly not as a rule all wives of reigning Emperors. Imperator (as, for example, in Pliny the Elder 's Naturalis Historia). In the Roman Republic Imperator meant "(military) commander". In the late Republic, as in the early years of the new monarchy, Imperator was a title granted to Roman generals by their troops and the Roman Senate after a great victory, roughly comparable to field marshal (head or commander of the entire army). For example, in AD 15 Germanicus was proclaimed Imperator during the reign of his adoptive father Tiberius. Soon thereafter "Imperator" became however a title reserved exclusively for the ruling monarch. This led to "Emperor" in English and, among other examples, "Empereur" in French and "Mbreti" in Albanian. The Latin feminine form Imperatrix only developed after "Imperator" had taken on the connotation of "Emperor". Autokrator (Αὐτοκράτωρ) or Basileus (βασιλεύς): although the Greeks used equivalents of "Caesar" (Καῖσαρ, Kaisar) and "Augustus" (in two forms: transliterated as Αὔγουστος, Augoustos or translated as Σεβαστός, Sebastos) these were rather used as part of the name of the Emperor than as an indication of the office. Instead of developing a new name for the new type of monarchy, they used αὐτοκράτωρ ( autokratōr, only partly overlapping with the modern understanding of " autocrat ") or βασιλεύς ( basileus, until then the usual name for " sovereign "). Autokratōr was essentially used as a translation of the Latin Imperator in Greek-speaking part of the Roman Empire, but also here there is only partial overlap between the meaning of the original Greek and Latin concepts. For the Greeks Autokratōr was not a military title, and was closer to the Latin dictator concept ("the one with unlimited power"), before it came to mean Emperor. Basileus appears not to have been used exclusively in the meaning of "emperor" (and specifically, the Roman/Byzantine emperor) before the 7th century, although it was a standard informal designation of the Emperor in the Greek-speaking East. After the turbulent Year of the four emperors in 69, the Flavian Dynasty reigned for three decades. The succeeding Nervan-Antonian Dynasty, ruling for most of the 2nd century, stabilised the Empire. This epoch became known as the era of the Five Good Emperors, and was followed by the short-lived Severan Dynasty. During the Crisis of the 3rd century, Barracks Emperors succeeded one another at short intervals. Three short lived secessionist attempts had their own emperors: the Gallic Empire, the Britannic Empire, and the Palmyrene Empire though the latter used rex more regularly. The Principate (27 BC – 284 AD) period was succeeded by what is known as the Dominate (284 AD – 527 AD), during which Emperor Diocletian tried to put the Empire on a more formal footing. Diocletian sought to address the challenges of the Empire's now vast geography and the instability caused by the informality of succession by the creation of co-emperors and junior emperors. At one point, there were as many as five sharers of the imperium (see: Tetrarchy). In 325 AD Constantine I defeated his rivals and restored single emperor rule, but following his death the empire was divided among his sons. For a time the concept was of one empire ruled by multiple emperors with varying territory under their control, however following the death of Theodosius I the rule was divided between his two sons and increasingly became separate entities. The areas administered from Rome are referred to by historians the Western Roman Empire and those under the immediate authority of Constantinople called the Eastern Roman Empire or (after the Battle of Yarmouk in 636 AD) the Later Roman or Byzantine Empire. The subdivisions and co-emperor system were formally abolished by Emperor Zeno in 480 AD following the death of Julius Nepos last Western Emperor and the ascension of Odoacer as the de facto King of Italy in 476 AD. Byzantine period [ edit] Before the 4th Crusade [ edit] Under Justinian I, reigning in the 6th century, parts of Italy were for a few decades (re)conquered from the Ostrogoths: thus, this famous mosaic, featuring the Byzantine emperor in the center, can be admired at Ravenna. Historians generally refer to the continuing Roman Empire in the east as the Byzantine Empire after Byzantium, the original name of the town that Constantine I would elevate to the Imperial capital as New Rome in AD 330. (The city is more commonly called Constantinople and is today named Istanbul). Although the empire was again subdivided and a co-emperor sent to Italy at the end of the fourth century, the office became unitary again only 95 years later at the request of the Roman Senate and following the death of Julius Nepos, last Western Emperor. This change was a recognition of the reality that little remained of Imperial authority in the areas that had been the Western Empire, with even Rome and Italy itself now ruled by the essentially autonomous Odoacer. These Later Roman "Byzantine" Emperors completed the transition from the idea of the Emperor as a semi-republican official to the Emperor as an absolute monarch. Of particular note was the translation of the Latin Imperator into the Greek Basileus, after Emperor Heraclius changed the official language of the empire from Latin to Greek in AD 620. Basileus, a title which had long been used for Alexander the Great was already in common usage as the Greek word for the Roman emperor, but its definition and sense was "King" in Greek, essentially equivalent with the Latin Rex. Byzantine period emperors also used the Greek word "autokrator", meaning "one who rules himself", or "monarch", which was traditionally used by Greek writers to translate the Latin dictator. Essentially, the Greek language did not incorporate the nuances of the Ancient Roman concepts that distinguished imperium from other forms of political power. In general usage, the Byzantine imperial title evolved from simply "emperor" ( basileus), to "emperor of the Romans" ( basileus tōn Rōmaiōn) in the 9th century, to "emperor and autocrat of the Romans" ( basileus kai autokratōr tōn Rōmaiōn) in the 10th. [4] In fact, none of these (and other) additional epithets and titles had ever been completely discarded. One important distinction between the post Constantine I (reigned AD 306–337) emperors and their pagan predecessors was cesaropapism, the assertion that the Emperor (or other head of state) is also the head of the Church. Although this principle was held by all emperors after Constantine, it met with increasing resistance and ultimately rejection by bishops in the west after the effective end of Imperial power there. This concept became a key element of the meaning of "emperor" in the Byzantine and Orthodox east, but went out of favor in the west with the rise of Roman Catholicism. The Byzantine Empire also produced three women who effectively governed the state: the Empress Irene and the Empresses Zoe and Theodora. Latin emperors [ edit] In 1204 Constantinople fell to the Venetians and the Franks in the Fourth Crusade. Following the tragedy of the horrific sacking of the city, the conquerors declared a new "Empire of Romania", known to historians as the Latin Empire of Constantinople, installing Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders, as Emperor. However, Byzantine resistance to the new empire meant that it was in constant struggle to establish itself. Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos succeeded in recapturing Constantinople in 1261. The Principality of Achaea, a vassal state the empire had created in Morea (Greece) intermittently continued to recognize the authority of the crusader emperors for another half century. Pretenders to the title continued among the European nobility until circa 1383. After the 4th Crusade [ edit] With Constantinople occupied, claimants to the imperial succession styled themselves as emperor in the chief centers of resistance: The Laskarid dynasty in the Empire of Nicaea, the Komnenid dynasty in the Empire of Trebizond and the Doukid dynasty in the Despotate of Epirus. In 1248, Epirus recognized the Nicaean Emperors, who subsequently recaptured Constantinople in 1261. The Trapezuntine emperor formally submitted in Constantinople in 1281, [5] but frequently flouted convention by styling themselves emperor back in Trebizond thereafter. Ottoman Empire [ edit] Agostino Veneziano 's engraving of Ottoman emperor Suleiman the Magnificent wearing his Venetian Helmet. [note 1] Note the four tiers on the helmet, symbolizing his imperial power, and excelling the three-tiered papal tiara. [6] This tiara was made for 115, 000 ducats and offered to Suleiman by the French ambassador Antonio Rincon in 1532. [7] This was a most atypical piece of headgear for a Turkish sultan, which he probably never normally wore, but which he placed beside him when receiving visitors, especially ambassadors. It was crowned with an enormous feather. [8] Ottoman rulers held several titles denoting their Imperial status. These included: [ citation needed] Sultan, Khan, Sovereign of the Imperial House of Osman, Sultan of Sultans, Khan of Khans, Commander of the Faithful and Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe, Protector of the Holy Cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem, Emperor of The Three Cities of Constantinople, Adrianopole and Bursa as well as many other cities and countries. [9] After the Ottoman capture of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman sultans began to style themselves Kaysar-i Rum (Emperor of the Romans) as they asserted themselves to be the heirs to the Roman Empire by right of conquest. The title was of such importance to them that it led them to eliminate the various Byzantine successor states — and therefore rival claimants — over the next eight years. Though the term "emperor" was rarely used by Westerners of the Ottoman sultan, it was generally accepted by Westerners that he had imperial status. Holy Roman Empire [ edit] The Emperor of the Romans' title was a reflection of the translatio imperii ( transfer of rule) principle that regarded the Holy Roman Emperors as the inheritors of the title of Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, despite the continued existence of the Roman Empire in the east, hence the problem of two emperors. From the time of Otto the Great onward, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia became the Holy Roman Empire. The prince-electors elected one of their peers as King of the Romans and King of Italy before being crowned by the Pope. The Emperor could also pursue the election of his heir (usually a son) as King, who would then succeed him after his death. This junior King then bore the title of Roman King (King of the Romans). Although technically already ruling, after the election he would be crowned as emperor by the Pope. The last emperor to be crowned by the pope was Charles V; all emperors after him were technically emperors-elect, but were universally referred to as Emperor. Austrian Empire [ edit] The first Austrian Emperor was the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II. In the face of aggressions by Napoleon, Francis feared for the future of the Holy Roman Empire. He wished to maintain his and his family's Imperial status in the event that the Holy Roman Empire should be dissolved, as it indeed was in 1806 when an Austrian-led army suffered a humiliating defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz. After which, the victorious Napoleon proceeded to dismantle the old Reich by severing a good portion from the empire and turning it into a separate Confederation of the Rhine. With the size of his imperial realm significantly reduced, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor became Francis I, Emperor of Austria. The new imperial title may have sounded less prestigious than the old one, but Francis' dynasty continued to rule from Austria and a Habsburg monarch was still an emperor ( Kaiser), and not just merely a king ( König), in name. The title lasted just a little over one century until 1918, but it was never clear what territory constituted the " Empire of Austria ". When Francis took the title in 1804, the Habsburg lands as a whole were dubbed the Kaisertum Österreich. Kaisertum might literally be translated as "emperordom" (on analogy with "kingdom") or "emperor-ship"; the term denotes specifically "the territory ruled by an emperor", and is thus somewhat more general than Reich, which in 1804 carried connotations of universal rule. Austria proper (as opposed to the complex of Habsburg lands as a whole) had been an Archduchy since the 15th century, and most of the other territories of the Empire had their own institutions and territorial history, although there were some attempts at centralization, especially during the reign of Marie Therese and her son Joseph II and then finalized in the early 19th century. When Hungary was given self-government in 1867, the non-Hungarian portions were called the Empire of Austria and were officially known as the "Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council ( Reichsrat)". The title of Emperor of Austria and the associated Empire were both abolished at the end of the First World War in 1918, when German Austria became a republic and the other kingdoms and lands represented in the Imperial Council established their independence or adhesion to other states. Emperors of Europe [ edit] Byzantium 's close cultural and political interaction with its Balkan neighbors Bulgaria and Serbia, and with Russia (Kievan Rus', then Muscovy) led to the adoption of Byzantine imperial traditions in all of these countries. Bulgaria [ edit] In 913, Simeon I of Bulgaria was crowned Emperor ( Tsar) by the Patriarch of Constantinople and Imperial regent Nicholas Mystikos outside the Byzantine capital. In its final simplified form, the title read "Emperor and Autocrat of all Bulgarians and Romans" ( Tsar i samodarzhets na vsichki balgari i gartsi in the modern vernacular). The Roman component in the Bulgarian imperial title indicated both rulership over Greek speakers and the derivation of the imperial tradition from the Romans, however this component was never recognised by the Byzantine court. Byzantine recognition of Simeon's imperial title was revoked by the succeeding Byzantine government. The decade 914–924 was spent in destructive warfare between Byzantium and Bulgaria over this and other matters of conflict. The Bulgarian monarch, who had further irritated his Byzantine counterpart by claiming the title "Emperor of the Romans" ( basileus tōn Rōmaiōn), was eventually recognized, as "Emperor of the Bulgarians" ( basileus tōn Boulgarōn) by the Byzantine Emperor Romanos I Lakapenos in 924. Byzantine recognition of the imperial dignity of the Bulgarian monarch and the patriarchal dignity of the Bulgarian patriarch was again confirmed at the conclusion of permanent peace and a Bulgarian-Byzantine dynastic marriage in 927. In the meantime, the Bulgarian imperial title may have been also confirmed by the pope. The Bulgarian imperial title "tsar" was adopted by all Bulgarian monarchs up to the fall of Bulgaria under Ottoman rule. 14th-century Bulgarian literary compositions clearly denote the Bulgarian capital ( Tarnovo) as a successor of Rome and Constantinople, in effect, the "Third Rome". After Bulgaria obtained full independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1908, its monarch, who was previously styled Knyaz, [prince], took the traditional title of Tsar [king] and was recognized internationally as such. [ by whom? ] France [ edit] The kings of the Ancien Régime and the July Monarchy used the title Empereur de France in diplomatic correspondence and treaties with the Ottoman emperor from at least 1673 onwards. The Ottomans insisted on this elevated style while refusing to recognize the Holy Roman Emperors or the Russian tsars because of their rival claims of the Roman crown. In short, it was an indirect insult by the Ottomans to the HRE and the Russians. The French kings also used it for Morocco (1682) and Persia (1715). First French Empire [ edit] Napoleon Bonaparte, who was already First Consul of the French Republic ( Premier Consul de la République française) for life, declared himself Emperor of the French ( Empereur des Français) on 18 May 1804, thus creating the French Empire ( Empire Français). Napoleon relinquished the title of Emperor of the French on 6 April and again on 11 April 1814. Napoleon's infant son, Napoleon II, was recognized by the Council of Peers, as Emperor from the moment of his father's abdication, and therefore reigned (as opposed to ruled) as Emperor for fifteen days, 22 June to 7 July 1815. Elba [ edit] Since 3 May 1814, the Sovereign Principality of Elba was created a miniature non-hereditary Monarchy under the exiled French Emperor Napoleon I. Napoleon I was allowed, by the treaty of Fontainebleau (27 April), to enjoy, for life, the imperial title. The islands were not restyled an empire. On 26 February 1815, Napoleon abandoned Elba for France, reviving the French Empire for a Hundred Days; the Allies declared an end to Napoleon's sovereignty over Elba on 25 March 1815, and on 31 March 1815 Elba was ceded to the restored Grand Duchy of Tuscany by the Congress of Vienna. After his final defeat, Napoleon was treated as a general by the British authorities during his second exile to Atlantic Isle of St. Helena. His title was a matter of dispute with the governor of St Helena, who insisted on addressing him as "General Bonaparte", despite the "historical reality that he had been an emperor" and therefore retained the title. [10] [11] [12] Second French Empire [ edit] Napoleon I's nephew, Napoleon III, resurrected the title of emperor on 2 December 1852, after establishing the Second French Empire in a presidential coup, subsequently approved by a plebiscite. His reign was marked by large scale public works, the development of social policy, and the extension of France's influence throughout the world. During his reign, he also set about creating the Second Mexican Empire (headed by his choice of Maximilian I of Mexico, a member of the House of Habsburg), to regain France's hold in the Americas and to achieve greatness for the 'Latin' race. [13] Napoleon III was deposed on 4 September 1870, after France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. The Third Republic followed and after the death of his son Napoleon (IV), in 1879 during the Zulu War, the Bonapartist movement split, and the Third Republic was to last until 1940. Iberian Peninsula [ edit] Spain [ edit] The origin of the title Imperator totius Hispaniae ( Latin for Emperor of All Spain [note 2]) is murky. It was associated with the Leonese monarchy perhaps as far back as Alfonso the Great ( r. 866–910). The last two kings of its Astur-Leonese dynasty were called emperors in a contemporary source. King Sancho III of Navarre conquered Leon in 1034 and began using it. His son, Ferdinand I of Castile also took the title in 1039. Ferdinand's son, Alfonso VI of León and Castile took the title in 1077. It then passed to his son-in-law, Alfonso I of Aragon in 1109. His stepson and Alfonso VI's grandson, Alfonso VII was the only one who actually had an imperial coronation in 1135. The title was not exactly hereditary but self-proclaimed by those who had, wholly or partially, united the Christian northern part of the Iberian Peninsula, often at the expense of killing rival siblings. The popes and Holy Roman emperors protested at the usage of the imperial title as a usurpation of leadership in western Christendom. After Alfonso VII's death in 1157, the title was abandoned, and the kings who used it are not commonly mentioned as having been "emperors", in Spanish or other historiography. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the legitimate heir to the throne, Andreas Palaiologos, willed away his claim to Ferdinand and Isabella in 1503. Portugal [ edit] After the independence and proclamation of the Empire of Brazil from the Kingdom of Portugal by Prince Pedro, who became Emperor, in 1822, his father, King John VI of Portugal briefly held the honorific style of Titular Emperor of Brazil and the treatment of His Imperial and Royal Majesty under the 1825 Treaty of Rio de Janeiro, by which Portugal recognized the independence of Brazil. The style of Titular Emperor was a life title, and became extinct upon the holder's demise. John VI held the imperial title for a few months only, from the ratification of the Treaty in November 1825 until his death in March 1826. During those months, however, as John's imperial title was purely honorific while his son, Pedro I, remained the sole monarch of the Brazilian Empire. Great Britain [ edit] In the late 3rd century, by the end of the epoch of the barracks emperors in Rome, there were two Britannic Emperors, reigning for about a decade. After the end of Roman rule in Britain, the Imperator Cunedda forged the Kingdom of Gwynedd in northern Wales, but all his successors were titled kings and princes. England [ edit] There was no consistent title for the king of England before 1066, and monarchs chose to style themselves as they pleased. Imperial titles were used inconsistently, beginning with Athelstan in 930 and ended with the Norman conquest of England. Empress Matilda (1102–1167) is the only English monarch commonly referred to as "emperor" or "empress", but she acquired her title through her marriage to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor. During the rule of Henry VIII the Statute in Restraint of Appeals declared that 'this realm of England is an erned by one Supreme Head and King having the dignity and royal estate of the imperial Crown of the same'. This was in the context of the divorce of Catherine of Aragon and the English Reformation, to emphasize that England had never accepted the quasi-imperial claims of the papacy. Hence England and, by extension its modern successor state, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, is according to English law an Empire ruled by a King endowed with the imperial dignity. However, this has not led to the creation of the title of Emperor in England, nor in Great Britain, nor in the United Kingdom. United Kingdom [ edit] In 1801, George III rejected the title of Emperor when offered. The only period when British monarchs held the title of Emperor in a dynastic succession started when the title Empress of India was created for Queen Victoria. The government led by Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, conferred the additional title upon her by an Act of Parliament, reputedly to assuage the monarch's irritation at being, as a mere Queen, notionally inferior to her own daughter ( Princess Victoria, who was the wife of the reigning German Emperor); the Indian Imperial designation was also formally justified as the expression of Britain succeeding the former Mughal Emperor as suzerain over hundreds of princely states. The Indian Independence Act 1947 provided for the abolition of the use of the title " Emperor of India " by the British monarch, but this was not executed by King George VI until a royal proclamation on 22 June 1948. Despite this, George VI continued as king of India until 1950 and as king of Pakistan until his death in 1952. The last Empress of India was George VI's wife, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. German Empire [ edit] Under the guise of idealism giving way to realism, German nationalism rapidly shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848 to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck 's authoritarian Realpolitik. Bismarck wanted to unify the rival German states to achieve his aim of a conservative, Prussian-dominated Germany. Three wars led to military successes and helped to convince German people to do this: the Second war of Schleswig against Denmark in 1864, the Austro-Prussian War against Austria in 1866, and the Franco-Prussian War against the Second French Empire in 1870–71. During the Siege of Paris in 1871, the North German Confederation, supported by its allies from southern Germany, formed the German Empire with the proclamation of the Prussian king Wilhelm I as German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles, to the humiliation of the French, who ceased to resist only days later. After his death he was succeeded by his son Frederick III who was only emperor for 99 days. In the same year his son Wilhelm II became the third emperor within a year. He was the last German emperor. After the empire's defeat in World War I the empire, called in German Reich, had a president as head of state instead of an emperor. The use of the word Reich was abandoned after the Second World War. Russia [ edit] In 1472, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor, Sophia Palaiologina, married Ivan III, grand prince of Moscow, who began championing the idea of Russia being the successor to the Byzantine Empire. This idea was represented more emphatically in the composition the monk Filofej addressed to their son Vasili III. After ending Muscovy's dependence on its Mongol overlords in 1480, Ivan III began the usage of the titles Tsar and Autocrat ( samoderzhets). His insistence on recognition as such by the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire since 1489 resulted in the granting of this recognition in 1514 by Emperor Maximilian I to Vasili III. His son Ivan IV emphatically crowned himself Tsar of Russia on 16 January 1547. The word "Tsar" derives from Latin Caesar, but this title was used in Russia as equivalent to "King"; the error occurred when medieval Russian clerics referred to the biblical Jewish kings with the same title that was used to designate Roman and Byzantine rulers — "Caesar". On 31 October 1721, Peter I was proclaimed Emperor by the Senate. The title used was Latin " Imperator ", which is a westernizing form equivalent to the traditional Slavic title " Tsar ". He based his claim partially upon a letter discovered in 1717 written in 1514 from Maximilian I to Vasili III, in which the Holy Roman Emperor used the term in referring to Vasili. A formal address to the ruling Russian monarch adopted thereafter was 'Your Imperial Majesty'. The crown prince was addressed as 'Your Imperial Highness'. The title has not been used in Russia since the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II on 15 March 1917. Imperial Russia produced four reigning Empresses, all in the eighteenth century. Serbia [ edit] In 1345, the Serbian King Stefan Uroš IV Dušan proclaimed himself Emperor ( Tsar) and was crowned as such at Skopje on Easter 1346 by the newly created Serbian Patriarch, and by the Patriarch of Bulgaria and the autocephalous Archbishop of Ohrid. His imperial title was recognized by Bulgaria and various other neighbors and trading partners but not by the Byzantine Empire. In its final simplified form, the Serbian imperial title read "Emperor of Serbs and Greeks" ( цар Срба и Грка in modern Serbian). It was only employed by Stefan Uroš IV Dušan and his son Stefan Uroš V in Serbia (until his death in 1371), after which it became extinct. A half-brother of Dušan, Simeon Uroš, and then his son Jovan Uroš, claimed the same title, until the latter's abdication in 1373, while ruling as dynasts in Thessaly. The "Greek" component in the Serbian imperial title indicates both rulership over Greeks and the derivation of the imperial tradition from the Romans. Emperors in the Americas [ edit] Pre-Columbian traditions [ edit] The Aztec and Inca traditions are unrelated to one another. Both were conquered under the reign of King Charles I of Spain who was simultaneously emperor-elect of the Holy Roman Empire during the fall of the Aztecs and fully emperor during the fall of the Incas. Incidentally by being king of Spain, he was also Roman (Byzantine) emperor in pretence through Andreas Palaiologos. The translations of their titles were provided by the Spanish. Aztec Empire [ edit] The only pre-Columbian North American rulers to be commonly called emperors were the Hueyi Tlatoani of the Aztec Empire (1375–1521). It was an elected monarchy chosen by the elite. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés slew Emperor Cuauhtémoc and installed puppet rulers who became vassals for Spain. Inca Empire [ edit] The only pre-Columbian South American rulers to be commonly called emperors were the Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire (1438–1533). Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro, conquered the Inca for Spain, killed Emperor Atahualpa, and installed puppets as well. Atahualpa may actually be considered a usurper as he had achieved power by killing his half-brother and he did not perform the required coronation with the imperial crown mascaipacha by the Huillaq Uma (high priest). Post-Columbian Americas [ edit] Brazil [ edit] When Napoleon I ordered the invasion of Portugal in 1807 because it refused to join the Continental System, the Portuguese Braganzas moved their capital to Rio de Janeiro to avoid the fate of the Spanish Bourbons (Napoleon I arrested them and made his brother Joseph king). When the French general Jean-Andoche Junot arrived in Lisbon, the Portuguese fleet had already left with all the local elite. In 1808, under a British naval escort, the fleet arrived in Brazil. Later, in 1815, the Portuguese Prince Regent (since 1816 King João VI) proclaimed the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, as a union of three kingdoms, lifting Brazil from its colonial status. After the fall of Napoleon I and the Liberal revolution in Portugal, the Portuguese royal family returned to Europe (1821). Prince Pedro of Braganza (King João's older son) stayed in South America acting as regent of the local kingdom, but, two years later in 1822, he proclaimed himself Pedro I, first Emperor of Brazil. He did, however, recognize his father, João VI, as Titular Emperor of Brazil —a purely honorific title—until João VI's death in 1826. The empire came to an end in 1889, with the overthrow of Emperor Pedro II (Pedro I's son and successor), when the Brazilian republic was proclaimed. Haiti [ edit] Haiti was declared an empire by its ruler, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who made himself Jacques I, on 20 May 1805. He was assassinated the next year. Haiti again became an empire from 1849 to 1859 under Faustin Soulouque. Mexico [ edit] In Mexico, the First Mexican Empire was the first of two empires created. After the declaration of independence on September 15, 1821, it was the intention of the Mexican parliament to establish a commonwealth whereby the King of Spain, Ferdinand VII, would also be Emperor of Mexico, but in which both countries were to be governed by separate laws and with their own legislative offices. Should the king refuse the position, the law provided for a member of the House of Bourbon to accede to the Mexican throne. Ferdinand VII, however, did not recognize the independence and said that Spain would not allow any other European prince to take the throne of Mexico. By request of Parliament, the president of the regency Agustín de Iturbide was proclaimed emperor of Mexico on 12 July 1822 as Agustín I. Agustín de Iturbide was the general who helped secure Mexican independence from Spanish rule, but was overthrown by the Plan of Casa Mata. In 1863, the invading French, under Napoleon III (see above), in alliance with Mexican conservatives and nobility, helped create the Second Mexican Empire, and invited Archduke Maximilian, of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, younger brother of the Austrian Emperor Franz Josef I, to become emperor Maximilian I of Mexico. The childless Maximilian and his consort Empress Carlota of Mexico, daughter of Leopold I of Belgium, adopted Agustín's grandsons Agustin and Salvador as his heirs to bolster his claim to the throne of Mexico. Maximilian and Carlota made Chapultepec Castle their home, which has been the only palace in North America to house sovereigns. After the withdrawal of French protection in 1867, Maximilian was captured and executed by the liberal forces of Benito Juárez. This empire led to French influence in the Mexican culture and also immigration from France, Belgium, and Switzerland to Mexico. Persia (Iran) [ edit] In Persia, from the time of Darius the Great, Persian rulers used the title " King of Kings " ( Shahanshah in Persian) since they had dominion over peoples from the borders of India to the borders of Greece and Egypt. Alexander probably crowned himself shahanshah after conquering Persia [ citation needed], bringing the phrase basileus ton basileon to Greek. It is also known that Tigranes the Great, king of Armenia, was named as the king of kings when he made his empire after defeating the Parthians. Georgian title "mephet'mephe" has the same meaning. The last shahanshah ( Mohammad Reza Pahlavi) was ousted in 1979 following the Iranian Revolution. Shahanshah is usually translated as king of kings or simply king for ancient rulers of the Achaemenid, Arsacid, and Sassanid dynasties, and often shortened to shah for rulers since the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century. Iranian rulers were typically regarded in the West as emperors. Indian subcontinent [ edit] "Samraat" redirects here. For the 1982 film, see Samraat (film). The Sanskrit word for emperor is Samrāj or Samraat or Chakravartin. This word has been used as an epithet of various Vedic deities, like Varuna, and has been attested in the Rig-Veda, possibly the oldest compiled book among the Indo-Europeans. Chakravarti refers to the king of kings. A Chakravarti is not only a sovereign ruler but also has feudatories. Typically, in the later Vedic age, a Hindu high king ( Maharaja) was only called Samraaṭ after performing the Vedic Rajasuya sacrifice, enabling him by religious tradition to claim superiority over the other kings and princes. Another word for emperor is sārvabhaumā. The title of Samraaṭ has been used by many rulers of the Indian subcontinent as claimed by the Hindu mythologies. In proper history, most historians call Chandragupta Maurya the first samraaṭ (emperor) of the Indian subcontinent, because of the huge empire he ruled. The most famous emperor was his grandson Ashoka the Great. Other dynasties that are considered imperial by historians are the Kushanas, Guptas, Vijayanagara, Kakatiya, Hoysala and the Cholas. Rudhramadevi (1259–1289) was one of the most prominent rulers of the Kakatiya dynasty on the Deccan Plateau, being one of the few ruling queens (empress) in Indian history. After India was invaded by the Mongol Khans and Turkic Muslims, the rulers of their major states on the subcontinent were titled Sultān or Badshah or Shahanshah. In this manner, the only empress-regnant ever to have actually sat on the throne of Delhi was Razia Sultan. The Mughal Emperors were the only Indian rulers for whom the term was consistently used by Western contemporaries. The emperors of the Maratha Empire were called Chhatrapati. From 1877 to 1947 the monarch of the United Kingdom adopted the additional title of Emperor/Empress of India ( Kaisar-i-Hind). Africa [ edit] Ethiopia [ edit] From 1270 the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia used the title Nəgusä Nägäst, literally "King of Kings". The use of the king of kings style began a millennium earlier in this region, however, with the title being used by the Kings of Aksum, beginning with Sembrouthes in the 3rd century. Another title used by this dynasty was Itegue Zetopia. Itegue translates as Empress, and was used by the only reigning Empress, Zauditu, along with the official title Negiste Negest ("Queen of Kings"). In 1936, the Italian king Victor Emmanuel III claimed the title of Emperor of Ethiopia after Ethiopia was occupied by Italy during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. After the defeat of the Italians by the British and the Ethiopians in 1941, Haile Selassie was restored to the throne but Victor Emmanuel did not relinquish his claim to the title until 1943. [14] Central African Empire [ edit] In 1976, President Jean-Bédel Bokassa of the Central African Republic, proclaimed the country to be an autocratic Central African Empire, and made himself Emperor as Bokassa I. The expenses of his coronation ceremony actually bankrupted the country. He was overthrown three years later and the republic was restored. [15] East Asian tradition (Sinosphere) [ edit] The rulers of China and (once Westerners became aware of the role) Japan were always accepted in the West as emperors, and referred to as such. The claims of other East Asian monarchies to the title may have been accepted for diplomatic purposes, but it was not necessarily used in more general contexts. China [ edit] The East Asian tradition is different from the Roman tradition, having arisen separately. What links them together is the use of the Chinese logographs 皇 ( huáng) and 帝 ( dì) which together or individually are imperial. Because of the cultural influence of China, China's neighbors adopted these titles or had their native titles conform in hanzi. Anyone who spoke to the emperor was to address the emperor as bìxià (陛下, lit. the "Bottom of the Steps"), corresponding to " Imperial Majesty "; shèngshàng (聖上, lit. Holy Highness); or wànsuì (萬歲, lit. "You, of Ten Thousand Years"). In 221 BC, Ying Zheng, who was king of Qin at the time, proclaimed himself Shi Huangdi (始皇帝), which translates as "first emperor". Huangdi is composed of huang ("august one", 皇) and di ("sage-king", 帝), and referred to legendary/mythological sage-emperors living several millennia earlier, of which three were huang and five were di. Thus Zheng became Qin Shi Huang, abolishing the system where the huang / di titles were reserved to dead and/or mythological rulers. Since then, the title "king" became a lower ranked title, and later divided into two grades. Although not as popular, the title 王 wang (king or prince) was still used by many monarchs and dynasties in China up to the Taipings in the 19th century. 王 is pronounced vương in Vietnamese, ō in Japanese, and wang in Korean. The imperial title continued in China until the Qing Dynasty was overthrown in 1912. The title was briefly revived from 12 December 1915 to 22 March 1916 by President Yuan Shikai and again in early July 1917 when General Zhang Xun attempted to restore last Qing emperor Puyi to the throne. Puyi retained the title and attributes of a foreign emperor, as a personal status, until 1924. After the Japanese occupied Manchuria in 1931, they proclaimed it to be the Empire of Manchukuo, and Puyi became emperor of Manchukuo. This empire ceased to exist when it was occupied by the Soviet Red Army in 1945. [16] In general, an emperor would have one empress ( Huanghou, 皇后) at one time, although posthumous entitlement to empress for a concubine was not uncommon. The earliest known usage of huanghou was in the Han Dynasty. The emperor would generally select the empress from his concubines. In subsequent dynasties, when the distinction between wife and concubine became more accentuated, the crown prince would have chosen an empress-designate before his reign. Imperial China produced only one reigning empress, Wu Zetian, and she used the same Chinese title as an emperor ( Huangdi, 皇帝). Wu Zetian then reigned for about 15 years (690–705 AD). Japan [ edit] Emperor Hirohito (裕仁), or the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), the last Japanese Emperor having ruled with prerogative powers, combined with assumption of divinity (photographed 1926). The earliest Emperor recorded in Kojiki and Nihon Shoki is Emperor Jimmu, who is said to be a descendant of Amaterasu 's grandson Ninigi who descended from Heaven ( Tenson kōrin). If one believes what is written in Nihon Shoki, the Emperors have an unbroken direct male lineage that goes back more than 2, 600 years. In ancient Japan, the earliest titles for the sovereign were either ヤマト大王/大君 ( yamato ōkimi, Grand King of Yamato), 倭王/倭国王 ( waō / wakokuō, King of Wa, used externally), or 治天下大王 ( amenoshita shiroshimesu ōkimi, Grand King who rules all under heaven, used internally). As early as the 7th century, the word 天皇 (which can be read either as sumera no mikoto, divine order, or as tennō, Heavenly Emperor, the latter being derived from a Tang Chinese term referring to the Pole star around which all other stars revolve) began to be used. The earliest use of this term is found on a wooden slat, or mokkan, unearthed in Asuka-mura, Nara Prefecture in 1998. The slat dated back to the reign of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō. The reading 'Tennō' has become the standard title for the Japanese sovereign up to the present age. The term 帝 ( mikado, Emperor) is also found in literary sources. Japanese monarchs were given their official title by the Chinese emperor. The new Japanese monarch after coming into power would send a representative to China and receive the anointment. They would receive their official title on several golden plates of several meters tall. Since the Japanese monarchs changed their title to 天皇 (Heavenly Emperor) in 607, the Chinese emperor refused to anoint the Japanese king, thus, ending relations with Japan for the next few hundred years. [17] In the Japanese language, the word tennō is restricted to Japan's own monarch; kōtei (皇帝) is used for foreign emperors. Historically, retired emperors often kept power over a child-emperor as de facto regent. For a long time, a shōgun (formally the imperial military dictator, but made hereditary) or an imperial regent wielded actual political power. In fact, through much of Japanese history, the emperor has been little more than a figurehead. The Meiji Restoration restored practical abilities and the political system under Emperor Meiji. [18] The last shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned in 1868. After World War II, all claims of divinity were dropped (see Ningen-sengen). The Diet acquired all prerogative powers of the Crown, reverting the latter to a ceremonial role. [19] By the end of the 20th century, Japan was the only country with an emperor on the throne. As of the early 21st century, Japan's succession law prohibits a female from ascending the throne. With the birth of a daughter as the first child of the then-Crown Prince Naruhito, Japan considered abandoning that rule. However, shortly after the announcement that Princess Kiko was pregnant with her third child, the proposal to alter the Imperial Household Law was suspended by then-Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi. On 3 January 2007, as the child turned out to be a son, Prime Minister Shinzō Abe announced that he would drop the proposal. [20] Emperor Naruhito is the 126th monarch according to Japan's traditional order of succession. The second and third in line of succession are Fumihito, Prince Akishino and Prince Hisahito. Historically, Japan has had eight reigning empresses who used the genderless title Tennō, rather than the female consort title kōgō (皇后) or chūgū (中宮). There is ongoing discussion of the Japanese Imperial succession controversy. Although current Japanese law prohibits female succession, all Japanese emperors claim to trace their lineage to Amaterasu, the Sun Goddess of the Shintō religion. Thus, the Emperor is thought to be the highest authority of the Shinto religion, and one of his duties is to perform Shinto rituals for the people of Japan. Korea [ edit] Some rulers of Goguryeo (37 BC–AD 668) used the title of Taewang ( 태왕; 太王), literally translated as "Greatest King". The title of Taewang was also used by some rulers of Silla (57 BC–AD 935), including Beopheung and Jinheung. The rulers of Balhae (698–926) internally called themselves Seongwang ( 성왕; 聖王; lit. "Holy King"). [21] The rulers of Goryeo (918–1392) used the titles of emperor and Son of Heaven of the East of the Ocean ( 해동천자; 海東天子). Goryeo's imperial system ended in 1270 with capitulation to the Mongol Empire. [22] In 1897, Gojong, the King of Joseon, proclaimed the founding of the Korean Empire (1897–1910), becoming the Emperor of Korea. He declared the era name of "Gwangmu" ( 광무; 光武), meaning "Bright and Martial". The Korean Empire lasted until 1910, when it was annexed by the Empire of Japan. Mongolia [ edit] The title Khagan ( khan of khans or grand khan) was held by Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire in 1206; he also formally took the Chinese title huangdi, as "Genghis Emperor" ( 成吉思皇帝; Chéngjísī Huángdì). Only the Khagans from Genghis Khan to the fall of the Yuan dynasty in 1368 are normally referred to as Emperors in English. Vietnam [ edit] Ngô Quyền, the first ruler of Đại Việt as an independent state, used the title Vương (王, King). However, after the death of Ngô Quyền, the country immersed in a civil war known as Chaos of the 12 Lords that lasted for over 20 years. In the end, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh unified the country after defeating all the warlords and became the first ruler of Đại Việt to use the title Hoàng Đế (皇帝, Emperor) in 968. Succeeding rulers in Vietnam then continued to use this Emperor title until 1806 when this title was stopped being used for a century. Đinh Bộ Lĩnh wasn't the first to claim the title of Đế (帝, Emperor). Before him, Lý Bí and Mai Thúc Loan also claimed this title. However, their rules were very short lived. The Vietnamese emperors also gave this title to their ancestors who were lords or influence figures in the previous dynasty like the Chinese emperors. This practice is one of many indications of the idea "Vietnam's equality with China" which remained intact up to the twentieth century. [23] In 1802 the newly established Nguyễn dynasty requested canonization from Chinese Jiaqing Emperor and received the title Quốc Vương (國王, King of a State) and the name of the country as An Nam (安南) instead Đại Việt (大越). To avoid unnecessary armed conflicts, the Vietnamese rulers accepted this in diplomatic relation and use the title Emperor only domestically. However, Vietnamese rulers never accepted the vassalage relationship with China and always refused to come to Chinese courts to pay homage to Chinese rulers (a sign of vassalage acceptance). China waged a number of wars against Vietnam throughout history, and after each failure, settled for the tributary relationship. The Yuan dynasty under Kublai Khan waged three wars against Vietnam to force it into a vassalage relationship but after successive failures, Kublai Khan 's successor, Temür Khan, finally settled for a tributary relationship with Vietnam. Vietnam sent tributary missions to China once in three years (with some periods of disruptions) until the 19th century, Sino-French War France replaced China in control of northern Vietnam. The emperors of the last dynasty of Vietnam continued to hold this title until the French conquered Vietnam. The emperor, however, was then a puppet figure only and could easily be disposed of by the French for more pro-France figure. Japan took Vietnam from France and the Axis -occupied Vietnam was declared an empire by the Japanese in March 1945. The line of emperors came to an end with Bảo Đại, who was deposed after the war, although he later served as head of state of South Vietnam from 1949-55. Oceania [ edit] The lone holders of the imperial title in Oceania were the heads of the semi-mythical Tuʻi Tonga Empire. Fictional uses [ edit] There have been many fictional emperors in movies and books. To see a list of these emperors, see Category of fictional emperors and empresses. See also [ edit] Auctoritas Lists of emperors Notes [ edit] ^ Agostino never saw the Sultan, but probably did see and sketch the helmet in Venice. ^ Before the emergence of the modern country of Spain (beginning with the union of Castile and Aragon in 1492), the Latin word Hispania, in any of the Iberian Romance languages, either in singular or plural forms (in English: Spain or Spains), was used to refer to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula, and not exclusively, as in modern usage, to the country of Spain, thus excluding Portugal. References [ edit] ^ Harper, Douglas. "emperor". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 30 August 2010. ^ Uyama, Takuei (23 October 2019). "天皇はなぜ「王(キング)」ではなく「皇帝(エンペラー)」なのか" [The Title of the Monarch of Japan: not the “King” but the “Emperor”] (in Japanese). Retrieved 23 October 2019. ^ Peng, Dr. Ying-chen. "The Forbidden City". Khan Academy. ^ George Ostrogorsky, "Avtokrator i samodržac", Glas Srpske kraljevske akadamije CLXIV, Drugi razdred 84 (1935), 95–187 ^ Nicol, Donald MacGillivray, The Last Centuries of Byzantium, second edition (Cambridge: University Press, 1993), p. 74 ^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1968. "Turquerie" The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series 26 (5): 229. ^ Garnier, p. 52. ^ Levey, 65. ^ "Nobility of the World Volume VIII- Turkey". Almanch De Saxe Gotha. Retrieved 10 December 2017. ^ Napoleon, Vincent Cronin, p419, HarperCollins, 1994. ^ Napoleon, Frank McLynn, p644, Pimlico 1998 ^ Le Mémorial de Sainte Hélène, Emmanuel De Las Cases, Tome III, page101, published by Jean De Bonnot, Libraire à l'enseigne du canon, 1969 ^ Appelbaum, Nancy P. ; Macpherson, Anne S. ; Rosemblatt, Karin Alejandra (2003). Race and nation in modern Latin America. UNC Press Books. p. 88. ISBN   978-0-8078-5441-9. ^ Vadala, Alexander Attilio (1 January 2011). "Elite Distinction and Regime Change: The Ethiopian Case". Comparative Sociology. 10 (4): 636–653. doi: 10. 1163/156913311X590664. ISSN   1569-1330. ^ Lentz, Harris M (1 January 1994). Heads of states and governments: a worldwide encyclopedia of over 2, 300 leaders, 1945 through 1992. Jefferson, N. C. : McFarland. ISBN   0899509266. ^ "Manchukuo | puppet state created by Japan in China [1932]". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2 June 2019. ^ "Once upon a time, China anointed a 'King of Japan' - The Japan Times". The Japan Times. ^ Henry Kissinger On China. 2011 p. 79 ^ Although the Emperor of Japan is classified as constitutional monarch among political scientists, the current constitution of Japan defines him only as 'a symbol of the nation' and no subsequent legislation states his status as the head of state or equates the Crown synonymously with any government establishment. ^ Japan Imperial Succession ^ New Book of Tang, vol. 209 ^ Em, Henry (2013). The Great Enterprise: Sovereignty and Historiography in Modern Korea. Duke University Press. pp. 24–26. ISBN   0822353725. Retrieved 3 November 2018. ^ Tuyet Nhung Tran, Anthony J. S. Reid (2006), Việt Nam Borderless Histories, Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press, p. 67, ISBN   978-0-299-21770-9 External links [ edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Emperors. Ian Mladjov's site at University of Michigan [ permanent dead link]: Monarchs (chronology and genealogy) [ permanent dead link] Monarchs (more genealogy) [ permanent dead link].

Donations, seriously. Emperor watch full length tv. Instagram: Follow the studio for work updates instagram Follow the studio for work updates INSIGHT: Digging deeper into ESG INSIGHT LinkedIn: Follow for career opportunities linkedin Follow for career opportunities Twitter: Follow for news and events twitter Follow for news and events NEWS: Introducing Emperor's new Employee Board NEWS Introducing Emperor's new Employee Board. Emperor watch full length film. 'Your overconfidence is your weakness. Your faith in your friends is yours.' Give me goosebumbs every time. Such a badass response. Man, I have been listening to a lot of death metal lately. I come back to Emperor and this production is like, WOAH. YouTube. Emperor watch full length youtube. Emperor Titus Mede II. The title of Emperor or Empress is the name of a ruler of a specific Empire. It has also been applied to the rulers of the Ysgramor Dynasty, the Reman Dynasty, the Septim Dynasty, and the Mede Dynasty. The Emperor is the Head of State for the entire Empire. The Emperor resides in the Imperial Palace in the Imperial City. With the title inherited through blood by the first-born male child of the current emperor, the title has been bestowed upon daughters and dowagers. Until the reign of Tiber Septim, the title was passed through lineage. With no surviving heirs, Septim was granted the title due to his war prowess. After the death of the last-known Septim heir at the end of the Oblivion Crisis, Martin Septim, the Elder Council struggled to declare an emperor, until Titus Mede I seized the Ruby Throne; thus began the Mede Dynasty. Since the rule of Slave-Queen Alessia, the Amulet of Kings has traditionally been a symbol of the Emperor's power, with the Aedric relic being the means by which the ceremonial Dragonfires were lit within Temple of the One, at the Emperor's seat of power, the Imperial City. This tradition has been abandoned since during the Oblivion Crisis the Amulet of Kings was shattered and the Dragonfires were lit permanently. By game Edit Emperor (Online) Emperor (Skill) Emperor (Skill Tree) Emperor (Legends) Emperor Titus Mede II (Legends) Ascension Edit Emperors ascend to the throne through bloodlines. The title is usually handed from father to son, upon the death of the former. [1] The title has been handed to dowagers of Emperors, most notably Katariah. [2] In the absence of an heir, the Empires successions were different, during the time of the Second Empire the Akaviri Potentate ruled in the Emperors stead. [3] During the Third Empire the Elder Council elected a Potentate to rule in the Emperor's place until a suitable alternative can be crowned. [4] The Amulet of Kings Edit The Amulet of Kings, the Crown Jewel of the Empire. The Amulet of Kings is the Crown Jewel of the Emperors of Tamriel. [5] When Saint Alessia rallied the slaves against the Ayleids, Akatosh bestowed upon her the gem that would later be faceted into the Amulet of Kings. [5] The jewel later became crucial in the crowning of Cyrodilic Emperors. [6] During the Septim Dynasty, newly crowned Emperors brought the amulet to the Temple of the One to light the Dragonfires and keep the barrier between Tamriel and Oblivion shut. [5] Martin Septim, an illegitimate heir, broke the tradition when he destroyed the amulet to invoke Akatosh and return Mehrunes Dagon to Oblivion, thus sealing the barrier between Oblivion and Tamriel forever. [7] History Edit Ysgramor Dynasty Edit The origins of the first Empire of the Nords date back to the late Merethic Era when Ysgramor and his sons escaped the slaughter of the first human city of Saarthal by the native elves. [8] He returned to Skyrim with an army known as the Five Hundred Companions and lead a reprisal campaign against the elven population. [9] The city of Saarthal was retaken and eventually rebuilt. [citation needed] Ysgramor then ordered the construction of Windhelm which would serve as the capital of the Empire. [citation needed] In the following years, Ysgramor and his army hunted the remaining elves to near extinction. [10] Once Skyrim had been purged of Snow Elves, the ancient Nords turned their attention to Solstheim where a great number of skirmishes were said to have taken place. [citation needed] Alessian Empire Edit The first Imperial Empire of Tamriel began with Queen Alessia. [11] The Alessian Empire often called the "First Empire, " [citation needed] was founded by Alessia after the overthrow of the Ayleid by the human slaves in Cyrodiil. [12] [11] Outside of historical writings, the term more specifically refers to the Empire as it exists since the unification of Tamriel under Tiber Septim, Emperor of Cyrodiil at the end of the Second Era. [citation needed] Reman Empire Edit The birth of the Reman Empire is shrouded in myth. [citation needed] It is believed that in the first Interregnum, many lords and warlords fought for the throne, while others searched and prayed to Saint Alessia for the return of the peace brought with the first empire. Hrol, king of what is now known as Old Hroldan, specifically went searching for the spirit of Alessia. He had a vision of her standing with Akatosh, and was seduced by the spirit of Alessia. According to one of his shieldthanes, he "did love unto a hillock" in the belief it was Alessia. [6] Nine months later, the Hill birthed Reman Cyrodiil, who even as an infant spoke with the voice of an Adult. He marched into The Imperial City and was proclaimed a divine emperor. [6] Reman managed to unite the Empire's claims of Skyrim, High Rock, Hammerfell, Nibenay, and Colovia by repelling Akaviri invaders at Pale Pass. [citation needed] Elsweyr and Valenwood were taken militarily in the next decade or so. [citation needed] Morrowind never joined the Empire because, as the war between them was concluding, Reman Cyrodiil III and his son were both assassinated by the Dark Brotherhood. [citation needed] The Reman Empire fell twice. [citation needed] First it fell at its peak, with the assassination of all Reman Cyrodiil's heirs. [citation needed] This led to the slow decline of the empire under the Akaviri potentate, Versidue Shaie. In 2E 324, the potentate was assassinated by the Morag Tong and his son, Savirien Chorak, took power. [13] The new potentate and all his heirs were assassinated in the years to come by the Dark Brotherhood, ending the empire. [citation needed] The Potentate Versidue Shaie ruled for 430 years in prosperity that established some traditions of the empire before the last Potentate was assassinated by Morrowind 's official assassins guild, the Morag Tong. [14] His successor, also a Tsaesci, was promptly murdered by the Dark Brotherhood, leaving no Akaviri heirs, and officially ending the Second Empire. [citation needed] Septim Empire Edit Martin Septim, the last Septim Emperor A series of non-noteworthy Emperors would follow over the next four hundred years, until the rise to prominence of the Imperial General Talos Stormcrown, also known as Tiber Septim. [citation needed] Septim commanded the army and navy of Cyrodiil through a number of victories or stalemates, slowly bringing the independent states of Tamriel under the umbrella of Imperial Provinces. Talos ' own emperor was assassinated in 2E 854, leaving the Elder Council in charge of the government and, effectively, putting Tiber Septim in charge of the Empire. [citation needed] He continued to press his attacks across Tamriel, until in 2E 896, he enacts a truce between Cyrodiil and Morrowind to bring the Dunmer province into the Empire as a mostly independent province, in return for the aid of the golem Numidium in defeating the rest of the continent. [citation needed] Talos succeeds, and is named Emperor Tiber Septim, beginning both the Third Era and the Third Empire, the Septim Empire. [citation needed] During his time as Emperor, Tiber Septim had an affair with a Dunmeri queen named Barenziah. Outraged by the pregnancy, he ordered the child aborted. Barenziah fled the province. [15] The first few in the line of Septim Emperors ruled with relative peace and prosperity, but within 50 years, mismanagement and political infighting become the norm. [citation needed] In more than one case, wars are fought over the throne, including the notable War of the Red Diamond, fought among three surviving heirs. [citation needed] Potential kings or queens frequently attack the sitting Emperor, or have him assassinated, and the Empire begins to lose its grip on several provinces. [citation needed] It would not be until the reign of Uriel Septim V that the lands of Tamriel were reconquered and the Empire returned to its place of power. [citation needed] Unfortunately, Uriel V also chose to launch an ill-planned invasion of Akavir, in which he was defeated soundly and killed. [citation needed] The next generations of Septim rule restored the peace, prosperity, and most importantly, the stability of the Imperial line to Cyrodiil. [citation needed] By the time of Pelagius IV and his son, Uriel VII, the Empire was back almost to the height of its power. [citation needed] Uriel VII's reign was overall a stable one, but was dotted with occasional strife and near-catastrophe. His Imperial Battlemage Jagar Tharn, possibly at the urging of Mehrunes Dagon, imprisoned him and ruled in his stead for several years. [citation needed] The Emperor escaped just in time to thwart an attempt by the King of Wayrest to conquer Daggerfall. [citation needed] By the time of the Dagoth Ur crisis in Morrowind, there was talk of the failing health of the Emperor, and concerns over the future of the Empire. [citation needed] As it turned out, the Emperor's health was not an issue, but he was assassinated trying to flee the Imperial City after learning of the murder of every known heir to the throne. [citation needed] Their murderers, a cult called the Mythic Dawn, serving Mehrunes Dagon, were preparing Tamriel for an invasion by the Daedric Lord. [citation needed] Septim's one remaining illegitimate son Martin eventually led a defense of the Empire by becoming an avatar of Akatosh and defeating Dagon, but died in the process. [citation needed] The Empire was left without an heir once more, but this time, with no one even distantly related to Tiber Septim available to be crowned. [citation needed] The Elder Council, which had essentially ruled during the periods of the weakest emperors, was now officially running the Empire. [citation needed] Many provinces floated rumors of dissolving the Empire; after the Oblivion Crisis many provinces left the empire like Black Marsh. [citation needed] After the death of the last Septim and the subsequent beginning of the Fourth Era, the Elder Council struggled to maintain peace in Cyrodiil, placing new Emperors on the throne—none of which were well-taken by the people of the Empire. Eventually a Colovian warlord named Titus Mede conquered the Imperial City with just a thousand men and crowned himself Emperor. Thus began the Mede Dynasty. [16] Following the death of Titus Mede II, the Council could not successfully coronate another emperor. List of Known Emperors Edit The following is a list of Emperors known to have ruled The Empire of Tamriel and their respective reigns. First Nordic Empire Edit Ysgramor – late Merethic Era. [17] Harald ( 1E 143 – 1E 221) [18] [19] Vrage – (1E 221–1E 2? ) [20] [21] Gellir – (1E 2? –1E? ) [22] Borgas – (1E? – 1E 369) [23] Alessian Dynasty Edit Alessia (worshipped as Saint Alessia) – ( 1E 243 – 1E 266) [12] [5] Belharza the Man-Bull – ( 1E 266 –1E? ) Gorieus – ( 1E 461 – 1E? ) [24] Ami-El – (Sometime around 1E 358 –1E? ) Hestra – (Sometime around 1E 1030 –1E? ) [25] Reman Dynasty Edit Reman Cyrodiil – ( 1E 2703 – 1E 2762) [3] [26] Brazollus Dor – ( 1E 2762 –1E? ) [3] Kastav Cyrodiil – (1E? – 1E 2805 / 2806) [27] Reman Cyrodiil II – ( 1E 2812 – 1E 2851) [26] Reman Cyrodiil III – ( 1E 2877 – 1E 2920) [26] [28] Versidue Shaie – ( 2E 1 – 2E 324) Savirien Chorak – (2E 324– 2E 430 / 431) Interregnum Edit Durcorach the Black Drake – (2E? – 2E 541) Moricar – (2E 541–2E? ) Leovic – (2E? – 2E 573) Varen Aquilarios – (2E 573– 2E 579) Clivia Tharn – (2E 579– 2E 582) Attrebus – (2E 8?? –2E 8?? ) Cuhlecain – (2E 852–2E 854) Septim Dynasty Edit Tiber Septim (born Hjalti Early-Beard, later worshipped as the god Talos [29]) – ( 2E 896 – 3E 38) [3] [1] Pelagius Septim – ( 3E 38 – 3E 41) [1] Kintyra I – ( 3E 41 – 3E 53) [1] Uriel Septim I – ( 3E 53 – 3E 64) [1] Uriel Septim II – ( 3E 64 – 3E 82) [1] [30] Pelagius Septim II – ( 3E 82 – 3E 99) [1] [30] [31] [32] Antiochus – ( 3E 99 – 3E 119) [1] [31] [33] [2] Kintyra Septim II – ( 3E 120 – 3E 121) [33] [2] [34] [35] Uriel Septim III – ( 3E 121 – 3E 127) [1] [35] [36] Cephorus I – ( 3E 127 – 3E 140) [35] [36] [37] Magnus Septim – ( 3E 140 – 3E 145) [2] [37] Pelagius Septim III – ( 3E 140 – 3E 153) [32] [2] [36] [37] Katariah I – ( 3E 153 – 3E 200) [2] [38] Cassynder Septim – ( 3E 200 – 3E 202) [38] Uriel Septim IV – ( 3E 202 – 3E 246) [38] [39] Cephorus Septim II – ( 3E 246 – 3E 268) [36] [39] Uriel Septim V – ( 3E 268 – 3E 290) [39] [40] Uriel Septim VI – ( 3E 290 – 3E 317) [41] Morihatha Septim – ( 3E 317 – 3E 339) [41] Pelagius Septim IV – ( 3E 339 – 3E 368) [41] Uriel Septim VII – ( 3E 368 – 3E 433) [41] [42] Martin Septim – ( 3E 433 – 3E 433) [7] Mede Dynasty Edit Titus Mede I – ( 4E 17 –4E? ) [16] Attrebus Mede – (4E? –4E? ) [43] Titus Mede II – ( 4E 168 –possibly 4E 201) [44] [45] Other royalty Edit King Jarl High King Trivia Edit When the Roman Republic, the real world analogue on which the Empire of Tamriel is based, became a de facto monarchy in the second half of the 1st century BCE, at first there was no name for the title of the new type of monarch. Ancient Romans abhorred the name Rex ("king"), and it was critical to the political order to maintain the forms and pretenses of republican rule. Appearances Edit The Elder Scrolls: Arena The Elder Scrolls II: Daggerfall The Elder Scrolls Adventures: Redguard The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind (mentioned only) The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim The Elder Scrolls Online The Elder Scrolls Online: Imperial City References Edit ↑ 1. 0 1. 1 1. 2 1. 3 1. 4 1. 5 1. 6 1. 7 1. 8 Brief History of the Empire, Book I ↑ 2. 0 2. 1 2. 2 2. 3 2. 4 2. 5 The Madness of Pelagius ↑ 3. 0 3. 1 3. 2 3. 3 Pocket Guide to the Empire, First Edition: Cyrodiil ↑ Rising Threat, Vol. III ↑ 5. 0 5. 1 5. 2 5. 3 The Amulet of Kings ↑ 6. 0 6. 1 6. 2 Remanada ↑ 7. 0 7. 1 Gameplay from The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion ↑ Night of Tears ↑ Songs of the Return, Vol 2 ↑ Fall of the Snow Prince ↑ 11. 0 11. 1 Shezarr and the Divines ↑ 12. 0 12. 1 Pocket Guide to the Empire, Third Edition: Eras ↑ Mysterious Akavir ↑ The Brothers of Darkness ↑ The Nightingales Vol. 2 ↑ 16. 0 16. 1 Rising Threat, Vol. IV ↑ Songs of the Return, Vol 19 ↑ Plaque outside of the Palace of the Kings ↑ Frontier, Conquest ↑ Pocket Guide to the Empire, First Edition: Skyrim ↑ King Edward, Book X – a work of fiction. ↑ The Aetherium Wars ↑ A History of Daggerfall ↑ Rislav The Righteous ↑ Pocket Guide to the Empire, Third Edition: Black Marsh ↑ 26. 0 26. 1 26. 2 Tomb in Sancre Tor ↑ Annals of the Dragonguard ↑ 2920, The Last Year of the First Era ↑ Varieties of Faith in the Empire ↑ 30. 0 30. 1 The Wolf Queen, Book II ↑ 31. 0 31. 1 The Wolf Queen, Book III ↑ 32. 0 32. 1 Biography of the Wolf Queen ↑ 33. 0 33. 1 The Wolf Queen, Book V ↑ The Wolf Queen, Book VI ↑ 35. 0 35. 1 35. 2 The Wolf Queen, Book VII ↑ 36. 0 36. 1 36. 2 36. 3 Brief History of the Empire, Book II ↑ 37. 0 37. 1 37. 2 The Wolf Queen, Book VIII ↑ 38. 0 38. 1 38. 2 The Third Era Timeline ↑ 39. 0 39. 1 39. 2 Brief History of the Empire, Book III ↑ Disaster of Ionith ↑ 41. 0 41. 1 41. 2 41. 3 Brief History of the Empire, Book IV ↑ Assassination of Uriel Septim VII ↑ An Elder Scrolls Novel: The Infernal City ↑ The Great War ↑ Gameplay from The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim.

“ The gun is mightier than the sword! ” —Hol Horse, Chapter 142 Emperor ( エンペラー(皇帝) Enperā) is the Stand of Hol Horse, featured in Stardust Crusaders. Appearance The Emperor Emperor is a Stand in the form of an elaborate, impractical-looking revolver with some futuristic elements. A metal frame covers the long barrel, under which is positioned a cylinder with no apparent use, as it is not connected to the barrel. It has no sight, and a large sphere is embedded in the metal frame between the hammer and the barrel. Hol Horse summons it directly into his hand. Araki comments that its design is that of a revolver combined with an automatic pistol. [1] Emperor is portrayed as being silvery in most media, including the colored manga and anime. The OVA portrays it as being gold in color. It represents the Tarot card The Emperor W, which symbolizes order and control. Abilities As a gun Stand, Emperor functions as a weapon for Hol Horse. Due to its straightforward nature, Hol Horse must compensate through cooperation with allies to gain the upper hand. Homing Bullets Hol Horse controls the trajectory of the bullets The characteristic ability of Emperor, and its most dangerous is its ability to freely control the trajectory of its bullets as they are also a part of the Stand. [2] Hol Horse is able to control the bullets with enough precision that he was able to circle Silver Chariot 's sword with no lag time, [2] do a u-turn, [2] and have them navigate through a narrow conduit without seeing them. [3] However, since they are still part of Emperor, the bullets are still subject to limited range; although having a better-than-average range for a Close-Range Stand, Emperor's effectiveness still drops rapidly as the bullets reach the limits of that range. [2] Point-Blank Summon One of the lesser properties of Emperor is that Hol Horse summons it directly in his hand. It allows him to perform sneak attacks [4] and in a contest of summoning speed, Hol Horse is able to attack first. [5] Chapters / Episodes Manga Appearances Chapters in order of appearance Chapter 130: " Strength, Part 1 " (Mentioned only) Chapter 139: " Yellow Temperance, Part 4 " (Mentioned only) Chapter 141: " Emperor and Hanged Man, Part 2 " Chapter 142: " Emperor and Hanged Man, Part 3 " Chapter 143: " Emperor and Hanged Man, Part 4 " Chapter 146: " Empress, Part 1 " Chapter 156: " Justice, Part 3 " Chapter 177: " Judgement, Part 4 " (Mentioned only) Chapter 179: " High Priestess, Part 1 " (Mentioned only) Chapter 210: " Shooting DIO?! " Chapter 217: " Hol Horse and Boingo, Part 1 " Chapter 218: " Hol Horse and Boingo, Part 2 " Chapter 219: " Hol Horse and Boingo, Part 3 " Chapter 220: " Hol Horse and Boingo, Part 4 " Chapter 221: " Hol Horse and Boingo, Part 5 " Chapter 213: " D'Arby the Gambler, Part 3 " (Mentioned only) Anime Appearances Episodes in order of appearance SC Episode 9: " Yukako Yamagishi Falls in Love, Part 2 " (Mentioned only) SC Episode 10: " Let's Go Eat Some Italian Food " SC Episode 11: " Red Hot Chili Pepper, Part 1 " SC Episode 14: " Let's Go Play at the Mangaka's House, Part 1 " SC Episode 36: " Another One Bites the SCst, Part 2 " SC Episode 37: " Crazy Diamond is Unbreakable, Part 1 " Episode 4 (OVA): "[[Episode 4 (OVA)|]]" Episode 5 (OVA): "[[Episode 5 (OVA)|]]" Episode 6 (OVA): "[[Episode 6 (OVA)|]]" Gallery Trivia Araki came up with the idea of Emperor by thinking that it'd be novel to have a gun instantly appear in a user's hand, rather than having to draw it from a holster. [1] References ↑ 1. 0 1. 1 JOJOVELLER: STANDS - Comments by Hirohiko Araki [1] ↑ 2. 0 2. 1 2. 2 2. 3 Chapter 142, Emperor and Hanged Man (3) ↑ Chapter 221, Hol Horse and Boingo (5) ↑ Chapter 210, Shooting Dio?! ↑ Chapter 219, Hol Horse and Boingo (3) Site Navigation v · d · e Stardust Crusaders Stands Star Platinum Magician's Red Hermit Purple Hierophant Green Silver Chariot The Fool Holy's Stand Joestar Stand Tower of Gray Dark Blue Moon Strength Ebony Devil Yellow Temperance Hanged Man Emperor Empress Wheel of Fortune Justice Lovers Sun Death Thirteen Judgement High Priestess Geb Khnum Tohth Anubis Bastet Sethan Osiris Horus Atum Tenore Sax Cream The World.

You should watch it and then say it was abysmal. I heard Hansel and Grental with Jeremy Renner was horrible and I loved it. Que obra primaaaaaa. Emperor watch full length video. Emperor watch full length vs. Emperor watch full length trailer. Krásnej čistej mix, žádný uspěchaný přechody, double dropy co dávají smysl. Big up. I broke my foot in 4 places at this show and it still gives me problems to this day and I hate it. Can people please stop wearing steel capped boots at shows thanks. (I'm the guy with the green socks almost dying during a crowdsurf at 54:53.

Columnist: Elric Grondzik

Bio Chainmaille, Anime, Gaming, 3D Modeling, and a little bit of Writing on the side.



0 comentarios